The capital function of culture, its true reason for being, is to defend ourselves against nature. Sigmund Freud
- 1 Freud and human integrity
- 2 Culture and stories
- 3 The importance of stories in childhood
- 4 Winnicott's perspective
- 5 Narrative Elements
Freud and human integrity
The Freudian approaches state that the integrity of human beings is threatened from three perspectives These are: the body that is doomed to decay and annihilation without dispensing with the warning signs that pain and anguish represents.
The outside world capable of becoming fierce with humans with omnipotent and relentless destructive forces, and relationships with others, the suffering emanating from these relationships is more painful than anyone. From that vision, the stories become containers of anguish generated by the imminent threat or by the aggressions posed by Freud. We tell stories to support the weight of existence and manage to escape unscathed from the threats of the internal world, the environment and relationships We set up with the peers. The stories make the unexpected less surprising, distressing, surprising, making these kinds of patterns common.
Culture and stories
In this regard it should be said that there is a need to maintain coherence in the culture in which it is inhabited. That culture that, despite all circumstances, determines what is established as common. That is how the stories do not arise from great generalities nor do they focus on moral discourses are made to be heard.
A human culture constitutes the solution to life in common and in a less visible way a threat, a challenge for all those who live within its limits. In addition, in this constant struggle that the human being faces in order to survive, he has the means for the conflicts inherent in community life. One of those means is the stories that allow expressing and moving conflicts towards an elaborate ritual. Taking into account that no culture could work if it does not have the means to deal with the imbalances that appear in everyday life whether or not provided.
Which means that a culture must preserve a number of means to maintain incompatible interests or aspirations. In that sense the narrative resources of a culture among which are told: folk tales, old stories, literature and its constant evolution, the function of containing behaviors from possibilities of hope in the midst of chaos.
The importance of stories in childhood
Of course, this does not explain everything, the case of children suffering from displacement usually live in two separate universes that are: the inner world that is characterized by the affectivity and culture of their parents, and on the other hand, the outside world, which is constituted by the school. Hence, the story becomes an instrument that helps infants and create transgenerational linguistic and cultural ties between these two worlds.
In that same line, the stories are transmitted from generation to generation and in this way adults help children to grow respecting their rhythm of maturation in that fictional and imaginary universe, populated with fantastic characters that allows children to build themselves. Stories are the articulation between reality and children's imagination and the preceding generations.
It should be noted that, within the cross-cultural theory and practice, whose applicability is necessary when cultural ruptures occur, generating identity problems in children, the story is established as a therapeutic instrument that helps the infant to give rise to two cultural universes within the same identity. In that dimension is that stories are told to enter and create possible worlds.
Within this framework, the perspective of Winnicott, who particularly He is interested in the influence of the environment and the psychic development of the human being. Transitional activities can be multiple, but despite their variety, such activities have a common characteristic: they are vitally important for the child who consecrates in them at times when distress could arise, especially when there is a separation with his mother .
These various activities will be called transitional phenomena by extension, if an object is used, it will be called transitional object; The qualification of transitional indicates the place and function that these phenomena and objects will occupy in the child's psychic life, and will be housed in an intermediate space between inner reality and outer reality. The transitional object is an object that the child would keep in the absence of his mother to remember her. He will occupy the intermediate space between reality and external reality. This intermediate space will have a calming role in the face of the shock caused by the awareness of an external reality populated by personal ghosts and negative feelings. This space for the place it occupies will be equally qualified as transitional.
In that order of ideas the story can represent for the child that object that makes it possible to contain his anguish before the awareness of the existence of another being external to him, who controls and defines his existence. Reality very different from that perceived in previous stages in which the other was lived and represented as an extension of his own being. The story will fill and accompany the child allowing him to gain independence and feel less abandoned, and exposed to that other who finds it a threat.
The stories become containers of anguish generated by the imminent threat or by the aggressions posed by Freud. And, as we said, we tell stories to support the weight of existence. The stories they make the unexpected less surprising, less distressing, tame the surprise, it becomes a bit common.
The tales they are the articulation between reality and imaginary, both of the children themselves, and of the preceding generations, they feed the children of the imaginary of previous generations.
The transitional object is an object that the child would keep in the absence of his mother to remember her. He will occupy the intermediate space between reality and external reality. This intermediate space will have a calming role in the face of the shock caused by the awareness of an external reality populated by personal ghosts and negative feelings.
These contribute from the beginning to all human beings something that will always be important to him: a neutral area of experience that will never be confronted.
Finally, the great Uruguayan writer and sentipensante by nature Eduardo Galeano states: "Scientists say we are made of atoms, a little bird told me that we are made of stories " And yes, human beings are made of stories that allow walking on this long pilgrimage called life. In that wonderful game of creating possible worlds from a reality inside and outside without losing identity, quite the opposite; permeate what that other is, while remaining one. On that trip, stories like that bridge that establishes fantastic characters, animals, etc., that help infants to build from their interests, tastes and needs when facing the relationships established with their peers or with those others that appear Consider strangers. And thanks to the transitional objects and phenomena, the infant creates a bond that allows him to overcome his mother's absence and create an experience that will allow him to survive in a certain cultural event.