Briefly

The 14 most important personality disorders

The 14 most important personality disorders

A Personality disorder It is defined as a permanent and inflexible pattern of behavior, which departs substantially from the cultural expectations of the subject. It has its beginning in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time and involves discomfort or prejudice for those who suffer.

Personality disorders usually last a lifetime and have certain personality traits so rigid and misfit which can cause labor and social problems, damage to oneself and probably to others.

Content

  • 1 Depressive personality disorder
  • 2 Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
  • 3 Personality disorder by avoidance
  • 4 Personality disorder by dependence
  • 5 Narcissistic personality disorder
  • 6 Histrionic personality disorder
  • 7 Paranoid personality disorder
  • 8 Passive-aggressive personality disorder
  • 9 Self-destructive personality disorder
  • 10 Sadistic personality disorder
  • 11 Borderline personality disorder
  • 12 Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • 13 Schizotypal Personality Disorder
  • 14 Antisocial personality disorder

Depressive personality disorder

Depressive personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of chronic depressive behavior that manifests some of the following symptoms:

  • Mood characterized by despondency, sadness, discouragement, disappointment and unhappiness
  • Self-concept based on beliefs of inadequacy, worthlessness and low self-esteem
  • Self-criticism and contempt
  • Excessive Concerns
  • Take the opposite, criticize and judge others
  • Pessimism
  • Guilt and remorse.

Depressive personality is characterized by the inability to relax and enjoy, seriousness and lack of sense of humor. Physically they reflect your mood, presenting a sunken posture, depressed and even empty facial expression. Their expectations for the future are negative and they do not believe that things can improve.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is characterized by a general pattern of rigidity and concern for order and control to the detriment of flexibility and spontaneity. The obsessive-compulsive personality cares so much about the organization, the details, the order and the schedules that often loses sight of the final meaning of an activity.

Perfectionism can interfere with your tasks, so they may not finish a project because they do not meet their own requirements. Present excessive dedication to work and productivity, they can get to work for a long time on routine tasks, leaving leisure activities and personal relationships in the background.

They are reluctant to delegate tasks to others, unless they submit to the way they do things. Present excessive scrupulousness and inflexibility in matters of morality, ethics or values. They may become unable to dispose of useless or worn objects, as well as minimize economic expenses for themselves and others, considering money as something to accumulate with a view to future catastrophes.

Personality disorder due to avoidance

Avoidance personality disorder is characterized by a widespread pattern of social inhibition, excessive fear of negative evaluation and feelings of being socially inappropriate.

The person avoids activities that involve interpersonal contact due to fear of disapproval, to be criticized or rejected, despite her desire to relate only relates to people with whom she is sure they will accept her. They tend to perceive themselves socially inept, uninteresting and inferior to others. On the other hand, they usually feel safe in an environment of trust with friends and family.

Personality disorder by dependency

Dependence personality disorder is characterized by the excessive need for protection and care by others, and an intense fear of separation. Dependent personality is incapable of making decisions without an exaggerated amount of advice from others.

He has the need for others to be responsible for decisions in the most important plots of his own life. They find it very difficult to express disagreement with other people precisely for fear of losing their support and approval.

They have great difficulty to carry out projects on their own initiative. The dependent person does not consider himself capable of taking care of himself and is very intensely afraid and unrealistically abandoned, reasons why at the end of a relationship he urgently seeks another to provide the care and support he needs. They prefer to adopt a submissive attitude and avoid positions of responsibility or leadership.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by a widespread pattern of grandeur and self-importance, need for admiration and lack of empathy.

The narcissistic person believes to be special and unique, and can only relate to other people or institutions that are also special or of high status. It requires excessive admiration and special favor treatment by others.

They are usually exploitative people with others, seeking to take advantage of these for their own goals.They have no empathy or ability to identify with the feelings and needs of others.

The narcissistic person has a very weak self-esteem, sometimes he is envious of others or believes that others are jealous of him. They do not tolerate criticism well, to which they may become enraged or show totally indifferent. For all this, their social relations are very fragile. They usually present many relationships with acquaintances, from which to take advantage but few intimate friends. Other people may describe their relationship with the narcissistic person as a "love-hate" relationship, in which they feel their charm and charisma, while on the other hand they feel exploited.

Histrionic personality disorder

Histrionic personality disorder is characterized by a general pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking. the person feels uncomfortable in those situations in which it is not the center of attention showing interpersonal behavior characterized by sexual provocation and seduction, resorting to the physical aspect to attract attention.

His way of speaking is superficial and impressionistic, making everything seem more important than it really is and the expression of his emotions is exaggerated, dramatic, theatrical and rapidly changing. It presents an impulsive tendency towards emotional behaviors. Suggestibility is another characteristic of histrionic personality, and often they can be strongly influenced by others and circumstances.

The person usually considers that their relationships with others are more intimate than they really are, and present a lot of difficulty in being empathic and identifying the emotions and intentions of others.

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by unfounded suspicion and distrust of others. The person usually remains attentive and vigilant to everything that happens around him. Presenting the same alert attitude to possible threats can lead to an erroneous interpretation of events that would otherwise go unnoticed.

Person You can worry excessively about the loyalty or loyalty of close people and feel jealous at the unjustified suspicions that your partner is unfaithful. Sometimes he makes malicious interpretations of innocent facts attributing hidden meanings and double meaning to the behavior of others. They can easily hold grudges for a long time not forgetting situations in which they have been insulted or belittled.

The paranoid person can test the others, who end up showing a careful attitude and even develop a tendency to hide things, which only confirms the initial suspicions. Because of their distrust, the person ends up moving away from people and showing excessive reserve, which sometimes makes their difficulties go unnoticed by others and conflicts only manifest themselves in more intimate or regular relationships such as couple relationships or Labor relations 

Passive-aggressive personality disorder

Passive-aggressive personality disorder also called negativist It is characterized by a pattern of oppositional attitudes and passive resistance to the demands of adequate performance in social and labor situations.

The passive-aggressive personality expresses continuous complaints about his misfortune and of feeling misunderstood and despised by others. Unreasonably criticizes and criticizes authority figures with whom he establishes relations of covert hostility but dependence. Show envy and resentment towards the success of others and resort to continuous attempts to thwart the plans of others. The continuous search for defects in those people on which they depend is frequent.

Often the person oscillates between hostile threats and regret. It is common to present rapid successions of moods and emotional instability. They are irritable and with low tolerance for frustration.

Self Destructive Personality Disorder

The self-destructive personality disorder, also called masochist, is characterized by a pathological pattern of self-destructive behavior that leads the person to avoid pleasant experiences and get dragged into situations or relationships that will cause suffering, preventing others from providing help.

Self-destructive personality select situations or people that lead to frustration, failure or abuse although there are other better and obvious options. In relation to others, the person can raise responses of anger or rejection and then feel hurt, frustrated or humiliated.

He rejects the help of others and is not interested in people who usually treat him well. He also rejects situations in which he may experience pleasure and is reluctant to recognize that he has fun. After a positive personal event, you may react with depression or behavior that causes pain (for example, an accident). Sometimes it often involves excessive self-sacrifice that is not requested by those who are supposed to benefit.

Sadistic personality disorder

The sadistic personality disorder is characterized by a pathological pattern of cruel, inconsiderate and aggressive behavior, directed towards others.

The sadistic personality uses violence or physical cruelty in order to establish dominance in relationships. The person enjoys the physical or psychological suffering of people and animals. You can humiliate someone in the presence of other people, punish those who are under your control with excessive hardness and limit the autonomy of the people with whom you establish relationships. The person can lie in order to cause pain and often get other people to do what they want in fear. She is usually fascinated by violence, weapons, torture, etc.

Borderline personality disorder

The borderline personality disorder is characterized by a persistent pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, the person often goes from excessively idealizing others to an absolute rejection of them.

Person does not support loneliness and makes great efforts to avoid being abandoned, whether the abandonment is real or imaginary. They also present a rapid change of emotions and chronic feelings of emptiness. The self-image presented by the person with borderline disorder can be very unstable and their identity very altered by the fact that they usually resort to attachment to others to focus.

Another notable feature is impulsivity, which can manifest itself in the expenses of money, gambling, unexpected sexual intercourse, poisoning with alcohol or other drugs, etc.. The person may resort to suicide threats or carry out suicide attempts or self-injurious behavior. Solen presented a strong anger with enormous difficulties to control it, which results in recurring anger and even in physical fights.

Schizoid personality Disorder

The person who suffers from a schizoid personality disorder has a deep social and interpersonal disinterest, prefers solitary activities and has no need for friends or trusted people.

The person is unable to obtain pleasure from social relations or sexual relations, to which it manifests little or no interest. The schizoid person has a very limited range of emotional expression in interpersonal situations in which they maintain a deep distancing, not being affected by the criticisms or praises of others.

Schizotypal personality disorder

The person suffering from a schizotypal personality disorder usually has a behavior and appearance that are often seen by others as peculiar, rare or eccentric.

The schizotypal person usually has a reduced capacity for interpersonal relationships in which he suffers from deep discomfort and anxiety. Sometimes you may not have friendships and trustworthy people.

This disorder is also characterized by presence of rare ideas and beliefs or eccentric interestss (for example, extrasensory perception or flying saucers), magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, strange speech, suspicion towards others and very limited or inappropriate emotional expression. Often the person presents reference ideas, for example, unfounded beliefs that other people are talking about them 

Antisocial personality disorder

The antisocial personality disorder is characterized by socially irresponsible behavior, the violation of other people's rights and social rules and norms.

The person is characterized by their hoaxes, aggressiveness, irritability, impulsivity, and a profound difficulty in anticipating long-term consequences of behavior and planning their future. As for personal relationships, he is unable to establish deep relationships and stable bonds. Manipulate and use their relationships for their own benefit.

The antisocial personality shows unconcern for others and lack of regrets that lead him to justify his actions. He is unable to see himself from the point of view of others. Continually surround new sensations and stimulation.

Related tests
  • Depression test
  • Goldberg depression test
  • Self-knowledge test
  • how do others see you?
  • Sensitivity test (PAS)
  • Character test