The intelligence is a very general mental capacity that allows reasoning, planning, solving problems, think abstractly, understand complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It does not constitute a simple encyclopedic knowledge, a particular academic ability, or a skill to solve tests, but it reflects a broader and deeper capacity to understand the environment, make sense of things or imagine what should be done in each situation.
- 1 Measure intelligence
- 2 Intelligence types currently accepted
- 3 How do the Intelligence Test measure the capabilities?
The aptitude psychometricsIt aims to measure what psychological theory considers as proper to human intelligence. Individuals differ from each other in their ability to understand ideas, adapt effectively to the environment, learn in school contexts and from their own experience, solve problems, solve the obstacles they encounter in their daily lives, etc.
Although these individual differences are important and substantial, they are never entirely consistent, since A person's intellectual performance varies from one situation to another., in different contexts and as their behavior is judged by different criteria. The different intelligence concepts are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena.
Types of intelligence currently accepted
At present it is considered that people possess multiple types of intelligence or personal skills, which are the following:
- Verbal or linguistic, which deals with words and language.
- Mathematical logician, which deals with inductive and deductive thinking, numbers, abstract patterns and the ability to reason.
- Visual and spatial, with the sense of balance and the ability to visualize mental images, visual thinking, etc.
- Musical or ability to recognize tonal patterns, rhythms, melodies and tones.
- Body kinesthetic, ability to use the body. It is used in the execution of sports, dances and in general in those activities where body control is essential to obtain a good performance. Own dancers, gymnasts or pampering.
- Interpersonal or ability of a person to understand, work and communicate with people and maintain relationships.
- Intrapersonal, which implies self-knowledge, sensitivity to one's own values, purposes and feelings.
- Naturalist, is the ability to distinguish, classify and use environmental elements, objects, animals or plants. Both urban and suburban or rural environment.
- Emotional Intelligence, refers to the human capacity to feel, understand, control and modify the emotional states of oneself and others. Emotional Intelligence does not mean drowning emotions, but directing and balancing them.
- Creative, is the ability of the person to find solutions and have creative, imaginative and divergent thoughts with great ease.
- ExistentialRecently, this intelligence has been incorporated as the ninth within Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences, which defines it as “the ability to position oneself with respect to the cosmos and with respect to the existential features of the human condition, as is the meaning of life and death, the final destination of the physical and psychological world in deep experiences such as love for another person ”.
- Collaborative, this is also a type of intelligence of recent incorporation, mainly used in occupational or organizational psychology. It refers to the ability to work in a team knowing how to choose the best option to achieve the objectives during collaborative work.
Not all of these skills can be measured through a psychometric test conventional, but some of them. The intelligences valued in this type of test are usually:
- Space visual
And all this is studied together with other parallel skills such as:
- Quick response
In the The intellectual quotient of a person seems to have an important influence on both genetics and environmental variables. It is estimated that the heritability of intelligence is between 0'4 and 0'8 on a scale from 0 to 1. If all environments were equal for everyone, the heritability would be 1 (that is, 100 %) since all the differences that could be observed would necessarily have a genetic origin. But in reality, the environment and personal experiences contribute substantially to differences in the performance of Inteligence test. Social variables such as occupation, schooling or family environment, and biological variables such as nutrition, environmental lead, alcohol or perinatal factors are important factors to consider before doing a study with the most impartial and objective result possible.
How do the Intelligence Test measure the capabilities?
Each test has its own peculiarities, but basically they measure as follows:
- Logical logic reasoning: it is usually measured with contents of numerical series or figure matrices. The reasoning ability to detect repetition periods or sequences in which they are ordered is assessed numerical series. These tests measure the ability for inductive reasoning, to logically relate sets of visually encoded data. Another type of test proposed is the logical-mathematical problems. Evaluates the understanding of various numerical problems, also measuring the speed and security for the numerical calculation, its reasoning and the application of numerical operations in numerical problems
- Verbal reasoning: are specific tests of reasoning and verbal comprehension. Evaluate the ability to establish analog relationships and understanding of concepts in a given context. It requires performing operations of vocabulary recognition and recall previous experiences or knowledge. It also measures a Pragmatic Intelligence component, placing the subject before statements that are valid in certain cultures and circumstances, and that require, to be understood, prior knowledge, both of language syntax and general culture.
- Spatial reasoning: tests are usually proposed to fit figures and series of objects, assess the ability to display figures which must turn mentally and to adapt the position, size, shape and distance on a surface. It consists of observing the ease of viewing position changes of figures, changes in their structures and orientation of geographical axes. The mental turn is considered a relatively easy skill to learn, although it also measures the ability to perform these turns mentally maintaining the relations of size, distance and relative position, to check the adequacy of a figure with the surface from which it has been visualized .
- Auditory memory: measures the ability to retain meanings heard in a story. It is an auditory retentive, immediately after reading.
- Visual memory: evaluates retentive in the short term thanks to the exposure of objects to memorize In a time limit.
- Attention: Evaluate how quickly the visual discrimination of drawings, words, et., and in the comparison to find small differences between them. Quickly discriminating small visual differences is a very basic mental operation related to attention processes of reception and comparison of visual information.
- Speed: Counts the number of responses issued in the set of the six tests, regardless of whether or not they are correct. The speed of reaction to any type of stimulus, starting with the sensory, has been a fact that has sometimes been given excessive importance. Currently, more attention is paid to complex higher processes. Although the correlations that exist between the inspection time and the reaction time of a stimulus are important when measuring intelligence. In any case, we must always take into account this speed in relation to effectiveness, a scale that evaluates the percentage of successes in the answers issued.
- General intelligence: the general capacity to establish relationships between abstract concepts is analyzed, using all your mental areas. This result generally agrees with the rest of the scores in the other sections, as it is a summary of all of them.