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What are new and exciting research areas or applications in systems neuroscience?

What are new and exciting research areas or applications in systems neuroscience?



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Like the title says, what are new and exciting research areas or applications in systems neuroscience? I know the question is a broad one, so let me narrow it down a bit:

I will get my master's degree in about year from now. Currently, I have published two papers related to fMRI data analysis. I'm also familiar with PET. So, I am actually looking for a topic for my PhD.

I have considered taking part in some existing research group at my university, but to be honest, I'm not really excited about what they are doing. It seems to me that they are reinventing things (which I think is also evident from their publications records - for example, my current advisor's publications have not received much citations expect from herself).

So, the problem is that I know the basic things in my field, but nothing that could be the next big thing.

I would like to have a PhD topic on something that is new, and has potential. Any suggestions?


As Chuck says in his comment, read, read, read - as you do, consider the following factors for your potential PhD:

  • What topics are PhD projects in available at the universities that you are considering. Be sure to check not only the project availability, but also the research interests of academics.

  • A PhD is quite a commitment, which topic would light that 'fire' in you to the extent that it could become a lifelong vocation.

As you read, read, read - ask questions of the academics in that field, download their papers and have a look at what directions that particular research is taking.


Neuroscience and Behavior

Neuroscience is a relatively young, exciting, and fundamentally interdisciplinary field devoted to the study of the nervous systems. Problems range from investigation of the evolution of nervous system in basal vertebrates to the application of neuroscience to education and law. Neuroscientists also seek to develop neurologically plausible models of human thinking, affect and behavior.

Neuroscience creates a context for scholarly conversation about the nature of mind, brain, and behavior. It engages experts in collaboration across diverse fields, including biological sciences, chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, physics and psychology. Reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the major, the curriculum includes flexibility such that it can be customized to best prepare students for a variety of future careers.

Students studying neuroscience will be prepared to pursue professional programs (medical, dental, veterinary, clinical psychology, or other health professions) and graduate programs in areas such as neuroscience, biological sciences or psychology.


Cognition: An Overview of Neuroimaging Techniques

Contributions to the Study of Cognition

Neuroimaging research has been used to enrich our understanding of the neural basis of a wide variety of cognitive abilities, including attention, language, and memory. In addition, neuroimaging techniques have been used to gain insight into the etiology of neurobehavioral disorders, for surgical planning, and to assess functional recovery after brain damage.

One area in which neuroimaging studies are making important contributions is that of memory. For example, studies of long-term semantic memory have begun to uncover the ways in which stored information is organized in the brain. These studies show that different attributes of an object are stored in a distributed manner across several brain regions, with visual form information stored in a region that processes form, and functional information stored near a region that processes motion. Furthermore, studies of memory encoding have been able to pinpoint the precise regions for which level of activation during stimulus processing predicts subsequent memory for that stimulus. Additionally, studies of memory retrieval are being used to adjudicate between models of episodic memory positing that recollection (i.e., distinct remembrance of an item and the context in which it was previously encountered) and familiarity (a vague sense that the item has previously been encountered) are either distinct processes or merely on a continuum of memory retrieval. These examples show how brain imaging studies can be used to test or adjudicate between psychological models.

Perhaps the most important contribution of neuroimaging to the field of cognition will be in the study of higher cognitive functions, which are not highly developed in nonhuman species and are therefore best studied in humans. Carefully designed brain imaging experiments have begun to fractionate the cognitive processes that underlie language, reasoning, problem solving, and other high-level mental functions, but further investigation is necessary.


New Elsevier Reference Modules in Life Sciences and Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology Now Available

Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, today announced the availability of its two newest Reference Modules, Reference Module in Life Sciences and Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology. Each provides researchers, clinicians, educators and students access to reference content updated as science progresses. The new Reference Modules are available now on ScienceDirect, Elsevier's full-text scientific database offering journal articles and book chapters from more than 2,500 peer-reviewed journals and 35,000 book titles.

Elsevier's Reference Modules combine thousands of related reference work articles into one source of trustworthy information that is continually updated by experts. The new Reference Modules include:

  • Content from Elsevier's authoritative, peer-reviewed reference works
  • Articles that are continuously reviewed, updated as needed and then date stamped with oversight by the expert editorial board
  • 400 updated and 15 newly commissioned articles available immediately only in the Reference Module in Life Sciences, with 300 newly commissioned articles expected in the next few years
  • 307 updated and 15 newly commissioned articles available immediately only in the Reference Module inNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, with 250 newly commissioned articles anticipated in the next few years
  • Intuitive subject hierarchies, designed by the editorial board, that make it easy to navigate the module and find essential information
  • Full integration on ScienceDirect with no DRM restrictions and linking to relevant journal articles and book chapters for additional related information

&ldquoBiochemists, biologists, geneticists, biotechnologists, immunologists, neuroscientists and psychologists will benefit with access to the most up-to-date essential content that in the past was unavailable during the lengthy publishing process,&rdquo said Theresa Hunt, Elsevier Vice President of Marketing. &ldquoLibrarians, under increasing pressure to stretch budgets further and secure content that

contributes to cutting-edge research and learning, find high value in the Reference Modules&rsquo continuous reviews and updates led by expert editorial boards.&rdquo

The Reference Module in Life Sciences is designed to help researchers access the up-to-date content necessary to improve outcomes. Subjects in the new module include biochemistry and molecular biology bioinformatics and biological science tools biophysics biotechnology cell biology and genetics developmental biology evolution and ecology comparative immunology microbiology mycology plant biology and animal physiology and biology. It includes more than 2,500 articles, with content from 13 of Elsevier's comprehensive reference works.

The expert editorial board for the Reference Module in Life Sciences built the subject hierarchy, curated the content, oversaw the review of content, and continues to ensure the content is current and complete for biomedical researchers:

  • Bernard Roitberg, Simon Fraser University, Department of Biological Sciences, North Vancouver, BC, Canada &ndash Editor in Chief
  • Ilio Vitale, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Department of Biology, Rome, Italy
  • Shoba Ranganathan, Macquiare University, Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, Australia
  • Huan-Xiang Zhou, Florida State University, Department of Physics and Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Tallahassee, FL, USA
  • Susan Sharfstein, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Albany, NY 12203, USA
  • Francesca Pentimalli, Oncology Research Center of Mercogliano (CROM), Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Fondazione G. Pascale" - IRCCS, Naples, Italy
  • Antonio Giordano, Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Center for Biotechnology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Deborah Yelon, UC San Diego, Division of Biological Sciences, Cell and Developmental Biology, La Jolla, California, CA, USA
  • Brian Dixon, University of Waterloo, Department of Biology, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  • Paul Cotter, APC Microbiome Institute, Cork Institute of Technology, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland
  • Oscar Zaragoza Hernandez, National Centre for Microbiology, The Institute of Health III, Madrid, Spain
  • Sharman O'Neill, UC Davis, College of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant Biology, Davis, CA, USA
  • Kenneth Wilson, University of Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, UK

&ldquoIn our era science progresses so fast that, by the time a manuscript or a book comes out in print, it runs the risk of being already outdated,&rdquo said Dr. Pentimalli, Reference Module subject editor for Cell Biology and Genetics. &ldquoThe Reference Module tackles this flaw because it is conceived to provide continuously updated and authoritative content: authors have the chance to keep their article current by periodical addition of the latest information, whereas readers, on the other side, can rely on a trustworthy source of reference material covering a wide range of topics in an easily accessible way.&rdquo

Dr. Giordano, Reference Module subject editor for Cell Biology and Genetics, explained, &ldquoLife sciences include many different but interconnected disciplines. To progress, research needs to consider the whole of things analyzing all their possible aspects through different technical tools. We, as scientists, tend to specialize more and more into narrow fields but the Reference Module in Life Science now gives us the chance to better view &lsquothe big picture.&rsquo Thanks to this innovative publishing strategy, both specialists and non-specialists can access life sciences through different perspectives and easily find reliable sources of updated and authoritative material through well designed hierarchies of topics, which lead readers to both general overviews and detailed chapters satisfying all possible needs of information.&rdquo

&ldquoThe Reference Module is the perfect way for beginning graduate students and practicing scientists alike to keep abreast of basic knowledge in our time of rapid expansion of new knowledge and cross-fertilization between disciplines,&rdquo asserted Dr. Zhou, Reference Module subject editor for Biophysics. &ldquoBiophysics epitomizes these current trends. The areas in which biophysicists are working are so diverse, no single person can be familiar with all of them. The articles in the Reference Module, written by experts at an introductory level and updated regularly, will be an invaluable resource.&rdquo

According to Dr. Oscar Zaragoza Hernandez, Reference Module subject editor for Mycology, &ldquoResearch changes our knowledge every day, so we need new ways to communicate scientific advances. Furthermore, regular scientific articles are often difficult to understand for non-specialized readers. Elsevier Reference Modules offer a unique framework where current and relevant topics in Life Sciences are reviewed and periodically updated by experts in the field, with the aim that general public can learn them most relevant concepts in Biology.&rdquo

The Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology provides access to interdisciplinary subjects including behavioral neuroscience mental health the human brain clinical psychology psychotherapy applied psychology infant and early childhood development movement disorders and sleep. It includes more than 3,200 articles with content from 19 Elsevier reference works.

The expert editorial board for the Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology built the subject hierarchy, curated the content, oversaw the review of content, and continues to ensure the content is updated and complete for neuroscience and biobehavioral researchers:

  • John Stein, University of Oxford, UK - Editor in Chief
  • Robin Dunbar, University of Oxford, UK
  • Clive Coen, King's College London, UK
  • John Morris, University of Oxford, UK
  • Guy Goodwin, University of Oxford, UK
  • Edward Mann, University of Oxford, UK
  • Masud Hussein, University of Oxford, UK
  • John Stein, University of Oxford, UK
  • Edmund T. Rolls, Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience, UK
  • Jeremy Taylor, University of Oxford, UK
  • Vincent Walsh, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL, UK

&ldquoI am honoured to be assisting Elsevier by helping to edit their exciting new initiative, a Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Psychology,&rdquo declared Dr. Stein. &ldquoIt will be taking full advantage of the latest developments in information technology - a 'virtual&rsquo encyclopaedia', or 'Neuropaedia&rsquo, consisting of over 3000 articles. These will provide an authoritative but highly flexible online source of information on Neuroscience which will be cross referenced and regularly updated by experts. Unlike conventional encyclopaedias, dictionaries or text books the articles will not be published in print form, but will be comprehensively searchable on line, either using key words or from a hierarchical table of contents. Each article will be regularly updated, in order to respond to the very latest advances, quality assured by experts in the field. Although divided into Sections, it will be easy to link to relevant articles in other sections e.g., from genetic lineage in &lsquoEvolution&rsquo to genetic analysis in &lsquoTechniques.&rsquo&rdquo

"In the contemporary world, where we are deluged with journal papers, it is all but impossible to keep up with crucial developments in closely related areas of science -- something that I find increasingly essential to my research as science becomes ever more interdisciplinary,&rdquo said Dr. Dunbar, Reference Module subject editor for Evolution of the Human Brain. &ldquoThe value of this volume is precisely that it provides short, authoritative summaries that are regularly updated."

Dr. Morris, Reference Module subject editor for Neuroanatomy, noted, &ldquoThe human brain is arguably one of the most complex biological structures in existence. Whereas in the past our lack of knowledge was characterised by naming parts &lsquosilent&rsquo or &lsquoassociation&rsquo areas, it is gradually beginning to yield up its secrets thanks to the application of numerous different investigative techniques. However, the plethora of new information requires both constant updating and also organising into a readily searchable database. That ambitious aim is exactly what the Reference Module in Neuroscience seeks to achieve.&rdquo

&ldquoThe new Reference Module for Neuroscience is of particular significance for clinical psychiatry and psychology,&rdquo added Dr. Goodwin, Reference Module subject editor for Psychiatry. &ldquoMental illness remains poorly understood, badly treated and the butt for continuing stigma. The solutions lie in harnessing neuroscience to the service of clinical psychiatry. Only science can give us reliable knowledge and only neuroscientists can bring that knowledge to bear on clinical problems. While our patients and their families can only wait and hope, the Reference Module makes the right digital connections for synergies to be discovered and developed now.&rdquo

About Elsevier
As a global leader in information and analytics, Elsevier helps researchers and healthcare professionals advance science and improve health outcomes for the benefit of society. We do this by facilitating insights and critical decision-making for customers across the global research and health ecosystems.

In everything we publish, we uphold the highest standards of quality and integrity. We bring that same rigor to our information analytics solutions for researchers, health professionals, institutions and funders.

Elsevier employs 8,100 people worldwide. We have supported the work of our research and health partners for more than 140 years. Growing from our roots in publishing, we offer knowledge and valuable analytics that help our users make breakthroughs and drive societal progress. Digital solutions such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciVal, ClinicalKey and Sherpath support strategic research management, R&D performance, clinical decision support, and health education. Researchers and healthcare professionals rely on our 2,500+ digitized journals, including The Lancet and Cell our 40,000 eBook titles and our iconic reference works, such as Gray's Anatomy. With the Elsevier Foundation and our external Inclusion & Diversity Advisory Board, we work in partnership with diverse stakeholders to advance inclusion and diversity in science, research and healthcare in developing countries and around the world.


Postdoc - Neuroimaging and Systems Neuroscience

Researchers at the Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - Cognitive Neuroscience (INM-3) investigate the neural mechanisms underlying motor and cognitive (dys-)function in healthy subjects and patients suffering from neurological and psychiatric disorders. The successful candidate will be part of the Rehabilitation of Cognitive Disorders group headed by Professor Christian Grefkes. Our scientific mission is to further the understanding of lesion-induced disturbances in brain networks and the development of novel brain stimulation strategies to promote recovery of function. To achieve this, we combine neuroimaging (structural/functional MRI, electro-encephalography) and computational neuroscience with technical interventions (TMS) that allow us to enhance neural plasticity and neurorehabilitation. The research activities are embedded in the recently established Collaborative Research Centre (CRC, Sonderforschungsbereich 1451) on the neural mechanisms of motor control (www.crc1451.de) in collaboration with the University of Cologne. More information can be found at: www.fz-juelich.de/inm/inm-3/EN/Home/home_node.html

Your Profile:

We work on the very latest issues that impact our society and are offering you the chance to actively help in shaping the change! We support you in your work with:

We offer you an exciting and varied role in an international and interdisciplinary working environment. The position is initially for a fixed term of 3 years, with possible long-term prospects. Salary and social benefits in conformity with the provisions of the Collective Agreement for the Civil Service (TVöD). Depending on the applicant`s qualifications and the precise nature of the tasks, salary grade EG 13 TVöD-Bund.Forschungszentrum Jülich promotes equal opportunities and diversity in its employment relations.We also welcome applications from disabled persons.

This research center is part of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers. With more than 42,000 employees and an annual budget of over € 5 billion, the Helmholtz Association is Germany's largest scientific organisation.


How Can Neuroscience Contribute to Explaining Behavior?

Neuroscience Research

Neuroscience research is a rapidly-growing discipline, as advances in any of the major branches of neuroscience contribute to research in the field as a whole. Neuroscience research areas range widely in topic but primarily cover how the nervous system’s function and structure relates to disease, behavior and cognitive processes.

Neuroscience for Kids Video

Answering the Big Questions in Neuroscience

While the nervous system plays a role in an incredible number of behavioral functions, some of the most interesting topics in neuroscience today include neuroscience and sleep, neuroscience and human motivation, social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. Exploring those topics sheds light on how neuroscience explains behavior on a broader scale.

Neuroscience and Sleep

Sleep has traditionally been studied under the categories of medicine and psychology. As neuroscience grew into an established interdisciplinary field in the late 1900s, neuroscience research began turning its attention to sleep. Since animals require a certain amount of sleep to function—at the risk of their health—sleep is a critical neural behavior. The neuroscience of sleep seeks to explore what constitutes sleep, how sleep is triggered, what happens in the brain during sleep and how sleep disorders are caused and treated.

One type of EEG testing is specifically devoted to assess sleep disorders. A “polysomnography,” or EEG sleep study, is an overnight procedure that measures body activity (heart rate, breathing and oxygen levels) while an EEG scan is performed.

Neuroscience and Human Motivation

The study of neuroscience and human motivation examines the neurobiological components of normal and abnormal motivation. You may think of motivation as an attitude or characteristic that describes high-achieving individuals. In fact, motivation is a neurological behavior that involves biological and psychological processes.

At the biological level, animals are motivated to meet survival needs like food, shelter, and water. At the psychological level, a number of factors can contribute to whether an animal maintains a motivational drive to meet their basic needs. For example, experiencing neurological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia or diseases like addiction disrupt motivation.


We expect the application for Fall 2022 matriculation to open in September 2021, with a deadline of December 1.

The Career and Professional Development Navigator is a one-stop service center connecting Harvard bioscience master&rsquos, doctoral and professional students with resources, events, news, and providers related to skills and professional development.


Cellular / Molecular Neuroscience

Research in cellular and molecular neuroscience strives to understand the brain at its most fundamental level by studying the mechanisms that control construction and maintenance of cellular and molecular circuits.

Work in this area creates a window into how neurons are born and migrate, and how they form synaptic connections. Understanding how synapses function and undergo plasticity also allows insights into the molecular underpinnings of memory formation in the brain. Studying the ways that neurons operate will move us closer to understanding how the brain develops and responds to outside stimuli. The interplay of the complex molecular machinery of the neuronal membrane with the dynamics of electrical potentials is critical to understanding the synaptic contacts where neurons communicate with each other. This leads to important questions at the systems level. The plasticity of these contacts, expressed by neuronal axons, allows robust behavioral modification to changing environmental stimuli and internal representations.

Disruptions of the molecular machines that underlie neuronal development and function are also at the heart of most neurological and psychiatric diseases. This provides strong motivation to define how these molecular and cellular pathways allow neurons to connect and communicate, and how they go awry in brain diseases.

Cellular and molecular neuroscience is a deep mystery, but it brings exciting and critical bridges to other facets of brain and cognitive science. Researchers at BCS are using the latest tools and technologies to unlock critical applications of molecular science, including the prospects of future genetic intervention that might one day lead to cures for brain diseases.

Our focus in these important areas will help bring about new treatments for both neurodevelopment diseases like autism, as well as late-onset neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s. These studies also promise new insights into how other brain-related disorders associated with aging alter the functional interplay of neuronal function and connectivity.


Master of Neuroscience

Embrace the world of neuroscience and human behaviour, and be ready to respond to challenges and new discoveries in this exciting field of research and therapy. Develop an advanced understanding of neural processes and how these drive behaviour and clinical phenomena with UNE’s Master of Neuroscience. Our flexibly-delivered course provides you with an in-depth study of human physiology, neurobiology, neuroanatomy, clinical neuroscience and behavioural neuroscience. If you wish to broaden your knowledge or upskill in a professional clinical role, or you have completed undergraduate studies in neuroscience, this course is ideal. It equips you with the knowledge you need to further your career in this dynamic and diverse field, with the opportunity to choose a clinical, general or research pathway.

For further information about UNE's teaching periods, please go to Principal Dates.

Tuition fees for domestic students not admitted to a Commonwealth Supported Place (i.e. no available government subsidy).

Tuition fees for international students, i.e. those not Australian or New Zealand citizens or residents.


Social and Personality

Researchers in the Social and Personality (SP) area study the behavior of individuals and groups in social contexts. They share an interest in understanding why people behave the way they do in social situations, as well as how people think and feel about the broader social world. SPA researchers investigate topics such as prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, morality, self-identity, social identity, group behavior, intergroup interactions, prosocial behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Most research explores human behavior by investigating the interactions between intrapersonal processes (emotion, motivation, attitudes, belief systems) and social behavior (persuasion, communication, decision making, stereotyping, intergroup cooperation or conflict). Research in this area spans multiple levels of analysis, from the biological bases of social cognition and behavior to the larger cultural and social contexts in which people think, feel, and act. As such, SPA research uses methods from neuroscience, cognitive science, physiology, and behavioral science to explore the proximate and ultimate causes of social phenomena.


Social and Personality

Researchers in the Social and Personality (SP) area study the behavior of individuals and groups in social contexts. They share an interest in understanding why people behave the way they do in social situations, as well as how people think and feel about the broader social world. SPA researchers investigate topics such as prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, morality, self-identity, social identity, group behavior, intergroup interactions, prosocial behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Most research explores human behavior by investigating the interactions between intrapersonal processes (emotion, motivation, attitudes, belief systems) and social behavior (persuasion, communication, decision making, stereotyping, intergroup cooperation or conflict). Research in this area spans multiple levels of analysis, from the biological bases of social cognition and behavior to the larger cultural and social contexts in which people think, feel, and act. As such, SPA research uses methods from neuroscience, cognitive science, physiology, and behavioral science to explore the proximate and ultimate causes of social phenomena.


Postdoc - Neuroimaging and Systems Neuroscience

Researchers at the Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - Cognitive Neuroscience (INM-3) investigate the neural mechanisms underlying motor and cognitive (dys-)function in healthy subjects and patients suffering from neurological and psychiatric disorders. The successful candidate will be part of the Rehabilitation of Cognitive Disorders group headed by Professor Christian Grefkes. Our scientific mission is to further the understanding of lesion-induced disturbances in brain networks and the development of novel brain stimulation strategies to promote recovery of function. To achieve this, we combine neuroimaging (structural/functional MRI, electro-encephalography) and computational neuroscience with technical interventions (TMS) that allow us to enhance neural plasticity and neurorehabilitation. The research activities are embedded in the recently established Collaborative Research Centre (CRC, Sonderforschungsbereich 1451) on the neural mechanisms of motor control (www.crc1451.de) in collaboration with the University of Cologne. More information can be found at: www.fz-juelich.de/inm/inm-3/EN/Home/home_node.html

Your Profile:

We work on the very latest issues that impact our society and are offering you the chance to actively help in shaping the change! We support you in your work with:

We offer you an exciting and varied role in an international and interdisciplinary working environment. The position is initially for a fixed term of 3 years, with possible long-term prospects. Salary and social benefits in conformity with the provisions of the Collective Agreement for the Civil Service (TVöD). Depending on the applicant`s qualifications and the precise nature of the tasks, salary grade EG 13 TVöD-Bund.Forschungszentrum Jülich promotes equal opportunities and diversity in its employment relations.We also welcome applications from disabled persons.

This research center is part of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers. With more than 42,000 employees and an annual budget of over € 5 billion, the Helmholtz Association is Germany's largest scientific organisation.


How Can Neuroscience Contribute to Explaining Behavior?

Neuroscience Research

Neuroscience research is a rapidly-growing discipline, as advances in any of the major branches of neuroscience contribute to research in the field as a whole. Neuroscience research areas range widely in topic but primarily cover how the nervous system’s function and structure relates to disease, behavior and cognitive processes.

Neuroscience for Kids Video

Answering the Big Questions in Neuroscience

While the nervous system plays a role in an incredible number of behavioral functions, some of the most interesting topics in neuroscience today include neuroscience and sleep, neuroscience and human motivation, social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. Exploring those topics sheds light on how neuroscience explains behavior on a broader scale.

Neuroscience and Sleep

Sleep has traditionally been studied under the categories of medicine and psychology. As neuroscience grew into an established interdisciplinary field in the late 1900s, neuroscience research began turning its attention to sleep. Since animals require a certain amount of sleep to function—at the risk of their health—sleep is a critical neural behavior. The neuroscience of sleep seeks to explore what constitutes sleep, how sleep is triggered, what happens in the brain during sleep and how sleep disorders are caused and treated.

One type of EEG testing is specifically devoted to assess sleep disorders. A “polysomnography,” or EEG sleep study, is an overnight procedure that measures body activity (heart rate, breathing and oxygen levels) while an EEG scan is performed.

Neuroscience and Human Motivation

The study of neuroscience and human motivation examines the neurobiological components of normal and abnormal motivation. You may think of motivation as an attitude or characteristic that describes high-achieving individuals. In fact, motivation is a neurological behavior that involves biological and psychological processes.

At the biological level, animals are motivated to meet survival needs like food, shelter, and water. At the psychological level, a number of factors can contribute to whether an animal maintains a motivational drive to meet their basic needs. For example, experiencing neurological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia or diseases like addiction disrupt motivation.


Cellular / Molecular Neuroscience

Research in cellular and molecular neuroscience strives to understand the brain at its most fundamental level by studying the mechanisms that control construction and maintenance of cellular and molecular circuits.

Work in this area creates a window into how neurons are born and migrate, and how they form synaptic connections. Understanding how synapses function and undergo plasticity also allows insights into the molecular underpinnings of memory formation in the brain. Studying the ways that neurons operate will move us closer to understanding how the brain develops and responds to outside stimuli. The interplay of the complex molecular machinery of the neuronal membrane with the dynamics of electrical potentials is critical to understanding the synaptic contacts where neurons communicate with each other. This leads to important questions at the systems level. The plasticity of these contacts, expressed by neuronal axons, allows robust behavioral modification to changing environmental stimuli and internal representations.

Disruptions of the molecular machines that underlie neuronal development and function are also at the heart of most neurological and psychiatric diseases. This provides strong motivation to define how these molecular and cellular pathways allow neurons to connect and communicate, and how they go awry in brain diseases.

Cellular and molecular neuroscience is a deep mystery, but it brings exciting and critical bridges to other facets of brain and cognitive science. Researchers at BCS are using the latest tools and technologies to unlock critical applications of molecular science, including the prospects of future genetic intervention that might one day lead to cures for brain diseases.

Our focus in these important areas will help bring about new treatments for both neurodevelopment diseases like autism, as well as late-onset neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s. These studies also promise new insights into how other brain-related disorders associated with aging alter the functional interplay of neuronal function and connectivity.


Cognition: An Overview of Neuroimaging Techniques

Contributions to the Study of Cognition

Neuroimaging research has been used to enrich our understanding of the neural basis of a wide variety of cognitive abilities, including attention, language, and memory. In addition, neuroimaging techniques have been used to gain insight into the etiology of neurobehavioral disorders, for surgical planning, and to assess functional recovery after brain damage.

One area in which neuroimaging studies are making important contributions is that of memory. For example, studies of long-term semantic memory have begun to uncover the ways in which stored information is organized in the brain. These studies show that different attributes of an object are stored in a distributed manner across several brain regions, with visual form information stored in a region that processes form, and functional information stored near a region that processes motion. Furthermore, studies of memory encoding have been able to pinpoint the precise regions for which level of activation during stimulus processing predicts subsequent memory for that stimulus. Additionally, studies of memory retrieval are being used to adjudicate between models of episodic memory positing that recollection (i.e., distinct remembrance of an item and the context in which it was previously encountered) and familiarity (a vague sense that the item has previously been encountered) are either distinct processes or merely on a continuum of memory retrieval. These examples show how brain imaging studies can be used to test or adjudicate between psychological models.

Perhaps the most important contribution of neuroimaging to the field of cognition will be in the study of higher cognitive functions, which are not highly developed in nonhuman species and are therefore best studied in humans. Carefully designed brain imaging experiments have begun to fractionate the cognitive processes that underlie language, reasoning, problem solving, and other high-level mental functions, but further investigation is necessary.


Neuroscience and Behavior

Neuroscience is a relatively young, exciting, and fundamentally interdisciplinary field devoted to the study of the nervous systems. Problems range from investigation of the evolution of nervous system in basal vertebrates to the application of neuroscience to education and law. Neuroscientists also seek to develop neurologically plausible models of human thinking, affect and behavior.

Neuroscience creates a context for scholarly conversation about the nature of mind, brain, and behavior. It engages experts in collaboration across diverse fields, including biological sciences, chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, physics and psychology. Reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the major, the curriculum includes flexibility such that it can be customized to best prepare students for a variety of future careers.

Students studying neuroscience will be prepared to pursue professional programs (medical, dental, veterinary, clinical psychology, or other health professions) and graduate programs in areas such as neuroscience, biological sciences or psychology.


We expect the application for Fall 2022 matriculation to open in September 2021, with a deadline of December 1.

The Career and Professional Development Navigator is a one-stop service center connecting Harvard bioscience master&rsquos, doctoral and professional students with resources, events, news, and providers related to skills and professional development.


Master of Neuroscience

Embrace the world of neuroscience and human behaviour, and be ready to respond to challenges and new discoveries in this exciting field of research and therapy. Develop an advanced understanding of neural processes and how these drive behaviour and clinical phenomena with UNE’s Master of Neuroscience. Our flexibly-delivered course provides you with an in-depth study of human physiology, neurobiology, neuroanatomy, clinical neuroscience and behavioural neuroscience. If you wish to broaden your knowledge or upskill in a professional clinical role, or you have completed undergraduate studies in neuroscience, this course is ideal. It equips you with the knowledge you need to further your career in this dynamic and diverse field, with the opportunity to choose a clinical, general or research pathway.

For further information about UNE's teaching periods, please go to Principal Dates.

Tuition fees for domestic students not admitted to a Commonwealth Supported Place (i.e. no available government subsidy).

Tuition fees for international students, i.e. those not Australian or New Zealand citizens or residents.


New Elsevier Reference Modules in Life Sciences and Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology Now Available

Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, today announced the availability of its two newest Reference Modules, Reference Module in Life Sciences and Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology. Each provides researchers, clinicians, educators and students access to reference content updated as science progresses. The new Reference Modules are available now on ScienceDirect, Elsevier's full-text scientific database offering journal articles and book chapters from more than 2,500 peer-reviewed journals and 35,000 book titles.

Elsevier's Reference Modules combine thousands of related reference work articles into one source of trustworthy information that is continually updated by experts. The new Reference Modules include:

  • Content from Elsevier's authoritative, peer-reviewed reference works
  • Articles that are continuously reviewed, updated as needed and then date stamped with oversight by the expert editorial board
  • 400 updated and 15 newly commissioned articles available immediately only in the Reference Module in Life Sciences, with 300 newly commissioned articles expected in the next few years
  • 307 updated and 15 newly commissioned articles available immediately only in the Reference Module inNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, with 250 newly commissioned articles anticipated in the next few years
  • Intuitive subject hierarchies, designed by the editorial board, that make it easy to navigate the module and find essential information
  • Full integration on ScienceDirect with no DRM restrictions and linking to relevant journal articles and book chapters for additional related information

&ldquoBiochemists, biologists, geneticists, biotechnologists, immunologists, neuroscientists and psychologists will benefit with access to the most up-to-date essential content that in the past was unavailable during the lengthy publishing process,&rdquo said Theresa Hunt, Elsevier Vice President of Marketing. &ldquoLibrarians, under increasing pressure to stretch budgets further and secure content that

contributes to cutting-edge research and learning, find high value in the Reference Modules&rsquo continuous reviews and updates led by expert editorial boards.&rdquo

The Reference Module in Life Sciences is designed to help researchers access the up-to-date content necessary to improve outcomes. Subjects in the new module include biochemistry and molecular biology bioinformatics and biological science tools biophysics biotechnology cell biology and genetics developmental biology evolution and ecology comparative immunology microbiology mycology plant biology and animal physiology and biology. It includes more than 2,500 articles, with content from 13 of Elsevier's comprehensive reference works.

The expert editorial board for the Reference Module in Life Sciences built the subject hierarchy, curated the content, oversaw the review of content, and continues to ensure the content is current and complete for biomedical researchers:

  • Bernard Roitberg, Simon Fraser University, Department of Biological Sciences, North Vancouver, BC, Canada &ndash Editor in Chief
  • Ilio Vitale, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Department of Biology, Rome, Italy
  • Shoba Ranganathan, Macquiare University, Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, Australia
  • Huan-Xiang Zhou, Florida State University, Department of Physics and Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Tallahassee, FL, USA
  • Susan Sharfstein, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Albany, NY 12203, USA
  • Francesca Pentimalli, Oncology Research Center of Mercogliano (CROM), Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Fondazione G. Pascale" - IRCCS, Naples, Italy
  • Antonio Giordano, Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Center for Biotechnology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Deborah Yelon, UC San Diego, Division of Biological Sciences, Cell and Developmental Biology, La Jolla, California, CA, USA
  • Brian Dixon, University of Waterloo, Department of Biology, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  • Paul Cotter, APC Microbiome Institute, Cork Institute of Technology, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland
  • Oscar Zaragoza Hernandez, National Centre for Microbiology, The Institute of Health III, Madrid, Spain
  • Sharman O'Neill, UC Davis, College of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant Biology, Davis, CA, USA
  • Kenneth Wilson, University of Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, UK

&ldquoIn our era science progresses so fast that, by the time a manuscript or a book comes out in print, it runs the risk of being already outdated,&rdquo said Dr. Pentimalli, Reference Module subject editor for Cell Biology and Genetics. &ldquoThe Reference Module tackles this flaw because it is conceived to provide continuously updated and authoritative content: authors have the chance to keep their article current by periodical addition of the latest information, whereas readers, on the other side, can rely on a trustworthy source of reference material covering a wide range of topics in an easily accessible way.&rdquo

Dr. Giordano, Reference Module subject editor for Cell Biology and Genetics, explained, &ldquoLife sciences include many different but interconnected disciplines. To progress, research needs to consider the whole of things analyzing all their possible aspects through different technical tools. We, as scientists, tend to specialize more and more into narrow fields but the Reference Module in Life Science now gives us the chance to better view &lsquothe big picture.&rsquo Thanks to this innovative publishing strategy, both specialists and non-specialists can access life sciences through different perspectives and easily find reliable sources of updated and authoritative material through well designed hierarchies of topics, which lead readers to both general overviews and detailed chapters satisfying all possible needs of information.&rdquo

&ldquoThe Reference Module is the perfect way for beginning graduate students and practicing scientists alike to keep abreast of basic knowledge in our time of rapid expansion of new knowledge and cross-fertilization between disciplines,&rdquo asserted Dr. Zhou, Reference Module subject editor for Biophysics. &ldquoBiophysics epitomizes these current trends. The areas in which biophysicists are working are so diverse, no single person can be familiar with all of them. The articles in the Reference Module, written by experts at an introductory level and updated regularly, will be an invaluable resource.&rdquo

According to Dr. Oscar Zaragoza Hernandez, Reference Module subject editor for Mycology, &ldquoResearch changes our knowledge every day, so we need new ways to communicate scientific advances. Furthermore, regular scientific articles are often difficult to understand for non-specialized readers. Elsevier Reference Modules offer a unique framework where current and relevant topics in Life Sciences are reviewed and periodically updated by experts in the field, with the aim that general public can learn them most relevant concepts in Biology.&rdquo

The Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology provides access to interdisciplinary subjects including behavioral neuroscience mental health the human brain clinical psychology psychotherapy applied psychology infant and early childhood development movement disorders and sleep. It includes more than 3,200 articles with content from 19 Elsevier reference works.

The expert editorial board for the Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology built the subject hierarchy, curated the content, oversaw the review of content, and continues to ensure the content is updated and complete for neuroscience and biobehavioral researchers:

  • John Stein, University of Oxford, UK - Editor in Chief
  • Robin Dunbar, University of Oxford, UK
  • Clive Coen, King's College London, UK
  • John Morris, University of Oxford, UK
  • Guy Goodwin, University of Oxford, UK
  • Edward Mann, University of Oxford, UK
  • Masud Hussein, University of Oxford, UK
  • John Stein, University of Oxford, UK
  • Edmund T. Rolls, Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience, UK
  • Jeremy Taylor, University of Oxford, UK
  • Vincent Walsh, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL, UK

&ldquoI am honoured to be assisting Elsevier by helping to edit their exciting new initiative, a Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Psychology,&rdquo declared Dr. Stein. &ldquoIt will be taking full advantage of the latest developments in information technology - a 'virtual&rsquo encyclopaedia', or 'Neuropaedia&rsquo, consisting of over 3000 articles. These will provide an authoritative but highly flexible online source of information on Neuroscience which will be cross referenced and regularly updated by experts. Unlike conventional encyclopaedias, dictionaries or text books the articles will not be published in print form, but will be comprehensively searchable on line, either using key words or from a hierarchical table of contents. Each article will be regularly updated, in order to respond to the very latest advances, quality assured by experts in the field. Although divided into Sections, it will be easy to link to relevant articles in other sections e.g., from genetic lineage in &lsquoEvolution&rsquo to genetic analysis in &lsquoTechniques.&rsquo&rdquo

"In the contemporary world, where we are deluged with journal papers, it is all but impossible to keep up with crucial developments in closely related areas of science -- something that I find increasingly essential to my research as science becomes ever more interdisciplinary,&rdquo said Dr. Dunbar, Reference Module subject editor for Evolution of the Human Brain. &ldquoThe value of this volume is precisely that it provides short, authoritative summaries that are regularly updated."

Dr. Morris, Reference Module subject editor for Neuroanatomy, noted, &ldquoThe human brain is arguably one of the most complex biological structures in existence. Whereas in the past our lack of knowledge was characterised by naming parts &lsquosilent&rsquo or &lsquoassociation&rsquo areas, it is gradually beginning to yield up its secrets thanks to the application of numerous different investigative techniques. However, the plethora of new information requires both constant updating and also organising into a readily searchable database. That ambitious aim is exactly what the Reference Module in Neuroscience seeks to achieve.&rdquo

&ldquoThe new Reference Module for Neuroscience is of particular significance for clinical psychiatry and psychology,&rdquo added Dr. Goodwin, Reference Module subject editor for Psychiatry. &ldquoMental illness remains poorly understood, badly treated and the butt for continuing stigma. The solutions lie in harnessing neuroscience to the service of clinical psychiatry. Only science can give us reliable knowledge and only neuroscientists can bring that knowledge to bear on clinical problems. While our patients and their families can only wait and hope, the Reference Module makes the right digital connections for synergies to be discovered and developed now.&rdquo

About Elsevier
As a global leader in information and analytics, Elsevier helps researchers and healthcare professionals advance science and improve health outcomes for the benefit of society. We do this by facilitating insights and critical decision-making for customers across the global research and health ecosystems.

In everything we publish, we uphold the highest standards of quality and integrity. We bring that same rigor to our information analytics solutions for researchers, health professionals, institutions and funders.

Elsevier employs 8,100 people worldwide. We have supported the work of our research and health partners for more than 140 years. Growing from our roots in publishing, we offer knowledge and valuable analytics that help our users make breakthroughs and drive societal progress. Digital solutions such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciVal, ClinicalKey and Sherpath support strategic research management, R&D performance, clinical decision support, and health education. Researchers and healthcare professionals rely on our 2,500+ digitized journals, including The Lancet and Cell our 40,000 eBook titles and our iconic reference works, such as Gray's Anatomy. With the Elsevier Foundation and our external Inclusion & Diversity Advisory Board, we work in partnership with diverse stakeholders to advance inclusion and diversity in science, research and healthcare in developing countries and around the world.