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Are motivation and efficiency inversely correlated?

Are motivation and efficiency inversely correlated?



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Observation: Motivation and efficiency seem appear to me to be inversely correlated for most people. That is, I know some people who tend to get very excited about a goal and take large amounts of action but fail to plan efficiently, so a large chunk of their work is wasted. Conversely I know a lot of people who can plan and take action efficiently but tend to do comparatively less work (and I tend to fall into this category.)

Questions:

  • Is motivation and efficiency inversely correlated?
  • If so, is there a biological/neuroscientific reason for this?

For example, perhaps willpower is a finite resource, so that planning literally uses up the energy you have to do other work.


You might find Self Determination Theory interesting, which takes a detailed look the concept of motivation. Even if you don't explicitely mention it in your question, you seem to be refering to the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, which is a distinction that is traditionally made with respect to motivation.

In SDT this is taken a step further. Gagne & Deci (2005) introduce the distinction between autonomous and controlled motivation, which can be seen as two endpoints of a continuum. Intrinsic motivation is autonomous, and people who are intrinsically motivated engage in a certain behaviour because they like it, find it interesting, etc. In this sense, the behaviour is self-determined.

To the contrary, behaviour can also be externally controlled (e.g. your boss tells you to do something) and thus not self-determinded. In its most extreme form, this kind of controlled motivation is what we know as extrinsic motivation. However, a task that is extrinsically motivated can be internalized and thus become more autonomous and more important to the individual. Gagne & Deci postulate 3 degrees of Internalization, which vary from low to high. In its most internalized form, which is called integrated motivation, the behaviour has become autonomous and is equally important to the individual as intrinsically motivated behaviour, even though not for the same reasons.

In their article, Gagne & Deci (2005) make a couple of propositions derived from the theory, the first one of which also speaks to your question. Because integrated and intrinsic motivations differ in their underlying mechanisms, they should be predictice for performance on different kinds of task. An intrinsically motivated person should perform well on a task that she likes, whereas soemone with integrated motivation should perform well on tasks that require discipline and effort. This proposition has already been tested and confirmed with respect to political envolvement and voting behaviour (Koestner et al., 1996).

References

Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self‐determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational behavior, 26(4), 331-362. PDF

Koestner, R., Losier, G. F., Vallerand, R. J., & Carducci, D. (1996). Identified and introjected forms of political internalization: extending self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1025-1036.


Let me take the liberty of rephrasing some of the things you have mentioned. To be highly motivated , as per you, is starting a lot of things (more work), more excitement about new stuff and more efforts put in, but less follow through to completion maybe because a plan was not followed (more open ended stuff) ; efficiency, as per you is, doing less, but doing it well, by following a well established plan/ procedure and getting expected results. Ensuring six sigma compliance would be a matter of being efficient, while perhaps making incremental innovations happen by stretching out and taking risky activities a sign of a motivated individual.

The way I see this, is, as a tension or tradeoff between exploration drive (open ended exploration, too many simultaneous open ended threads, that do motivate in a sense that they bring passion out) and exploitation drive (sticking to what works best and ensuring efficiency by avoiding costly mistakes).

I can clearly see that these exploitation drive and exploration drive are theoretically related to the constructs of Avoid motivation and Approach motivation respectively. In the approach motivation you are driven towards achieving a desired end goal and the actions consequently are more exploratory in nature, you can give rein to your impulses, are more playful, spontaneous; in the Avoid motivation you are more driven by avoiding landing in an undesired state (like making a mistake) and more concerned with exploitation of what you have learned and on the lookout to avoid mistakes and generally anxious/ vigilant/ more planful/ controlled.

As a person will typically have either a predominant Approach orientation or Avoidance orientation, its true that your observation that some seem more motivated/ passionate and others more careful/ efficient would be generally true and finding a balance of both qualities in a single person may be difficult.

As for citation, I would have cited my own (future) posts on PT about this for the larger theoretical framework, but constructs of Approach and Avoidance motivation can be easily found in the works of Elliot/ Shculz or Carver/ Scheier.


Immuno-suppression (Immune system shuts down)

Sympathetic arousal has been shown to dampen immune function.

  • When our immune systems shut down in a state of stress this is called immunosupression.
  • Prolonged or repeated exposure to stress results in inhibited leucocyte and lymphocite production. These are responsible for creating antibodies and antigens which attack viruses and infections.
  • Numerous investigations with both laboratory animals and human participants have revealed that stress suppresses the immune system.
  • Riley (1981) exposed mice with cancer cells and divided them into high stress conditions and low/no stress conditions. The mice in the high stress condition went on the develop tumours whereas the no stress group did not. There was a clear difference between the two groups in terms of lymphocite production.
  • There are also a range of T-cells which perform various functions in relation to viruses, bacteria and other infectious agents. Corticosteroids are known to suppress immune functioning leading to inhibited T-cell production.
  • Whilst short term immune suppression is relatively harmless, repeated or long term immunosuppression may be dangerous (Willis et al, 1987)
  • Kiecolt-Glaser et al. (1984) studied responses to stress by taking blood samples from 75 first year medical students (49 males and 26 females).
  • The samples were taken one month before their finals and again on the first day after their examinations commenced, when the students’ stress levels should be at their highest.
  • Kiecolt-Glaser et al. found that natural killer T – cell activity declined between the two samples, confirming other research findings that stress is associated with a reduced immune response.
  • The volunteers were also assessed using behavioural measures. On both occasions they were given questionnaires to assess psychiatric symptoms, loneliness, and life events. This is because there are theories which suggest that all three are associated with increased levels of stress.
  • Kiecolt-Glaser et al. found that immune responses were especially weak in those students who reported feeling most lonely, as well as those who were experiencing other stressful life events and psychiatric symptoms such as depression or anxiety.
  • There were two key findings from this study. One was that stress was associated with a lowered immune response in humans. The second was that there were a number of different sources of stress and factors that moderate or increase it.
  • In further research Kiecolt –Glaser et al. (1984, 1987) devised ways of measuring the activity of the immune system from blood samples. They then compared immune function in control groups with groups accepted to be under chronic stress, and found significant immunosuppression in these high-risk groups (Kiecolt-Glaser et al 1984, 1987):
  • unhappily married women, recently separated women, especially if they were unhappy about the separation, long-term carers for Alzheimer patients
  • Other researchers have reported similar findings for the recently bereaved (Antoni 1987), and recently, Kiecolt-Glaser’s group have found reductions in immune function in couples even after short episodes of marital conflict (Kiecolt-Glaser et al 1998).

First of all, it was a natural experiment which means that there can be fewer ethical objections.

Another advantage of this study, related to the choice of independent variable (exam stress), is that it was a long-term form of stress.

Stress and immune response are negatively correlated (as one increases the other decreases), but we cannot say that one caused the other.

Further, not all people exposed to high levels of stress developed disorders (hence the relatively low correlations between these in life-event studies)

Finally there may have been a number of confounding variables such as lifestyle which skewed the results


The Social Brain is a Complex Super-Network

Lynn Waterhouse , in Rethinking Autism , 2013

Primary Social Motivation Failure Resulting in Secondary Social Deficits

Dawson (2008) outlined the social motivation theory of autism. She argued that autism social deficits are caused by an initial failure in social motivation. She proposed that the specific social impairments in social orienting, joint attention, responses to emotions, imitation, and face processing are the result of less engagement with the social world ( Dawson, 2008 , p. 786) rather than being primary deficits themselves. Dawson asserted that “Because experience drives cortical specialization … reduced attention to people, including their faces, gestures, and speech, also results in a failure of specialization and less efficient function of brain regions that mediate social cognition” (2008, p. 787). Dawson (2008) suggested that the dopamine reward system and the oxytocin affiliation system may be disrupted in autism, causing a lack of social motivation.

Similar to Dawson’s hypothesis, Gordon et al. (2011) theorized social motivation to derive from the interaction of oxytocin functions with the dopamine reward system. However, as outlined above, Gordon et al. (2011) proposed that attachment is the primary goal of social motivation, and, as noted above, a majority of individuals with autism have been found to be attached to their parents or caretakers ( Naber et al., 2007 Rutgers et al., 2004 ). In addition, there is significant evidence that many of the impairments in social behavior that Dawson relegates to secondary effects of impaired social motivation are likely to be primary impairments.

Bennetto et al. (2007) reported that individuals with autism were impaired in olfactory identification, and olfactory task skill was inversely correlated with degree of autism social impairment. The olfactory system may be damaged by illness, or maldeveloped due to genetic factors, but would not be disrupted by impaired social motivation. Klin et al. (2009) reported that 2-year-olds with autism did not orient to displays of biological motion. Because orienting to biological motion predates social motivation in animal evolution, it is unlikely that such a primitive and conserved system would be modified by lack of social motivation.

There may be a subset of individuals diagnosed with autism who are born with an impairment in some combination of oxytocin and dopamine, or their receptors, or their integration into a social reward network. For these individuals with autism, the initial failure of social motivation would result in absent social attachment in infancy. This initial lack of social motivation might or might not be a devolving force for social cognition impairment in autism.


In his article, Lepper, and corpus involved seven hundred and ninety-seven third-grade participants to the learners at the eighth grade from two different schools from the San Francisco district around the California&rsquos Bay Area. In the first district, the study included 577 participants, from large urban region, whereas the second district constituted about 220 participants in the suburban area identified for great performance in academics. Generally, the subjects that were selected in this study were divided equally across the different grading levels starting from grade three to grad.

The number of the female participants were equal to that of the male participants with one of the participants not providing his sex details. The total population sample was made up of Asian Americans (42%), African Americans (2%), Caucasian (34%), Hispanic (5%), and children from different ethnic groups (10). The Chinese, and the Indian America, Japanese American, Korean American, Filipino American, and Vietnamese American,were identified as Asian subjects. During the study Lepper, and corpus used a questionnaire as a tool for collecting data.

Questionnaires together with separate indices of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and the vital questions of demography on age, sex, and ethnicity were given to the participants after obtaining the consent from their parents in the classrooms of participating. For the participants from the second district, the social desirability measure was taken into consideration in the questionnaire.


Combating Choking Under Pressure

Based on our knowledge of the precursors of choking, interventions for performance under pressure can be developed to combat choking in high-stakes situations. Several recent studies have already directly examined how a variety of interventions can mitigate the choking effect. These interventions in turn can also increase our understanding of why pressure-filled exam situations undermine some students’ performance.

If the ability of working memory to maintain task focus is disrupted because of situation-related worries, performance can suffer. Anxiety and worries compete for the working memory available for performance. Before anxiety has a chance to reduce actual performance, eliminating one’s initial anxiety response at the early stage seems to be important. Expressive writing, in which people repeatedly write about a traumatic or emotional experience in the past, has been shown to be effective in decreasing rumination in depressed individuals (Smyth, 1998). Writing may alleviate the burden that worries place on working memory by affording people an opportunity to reevaluate the stressful experience in a manner that reduces the necessity to worry altogether. In two laboratory and two randomized field experiments, a recent study found that having students write down their thoughts about an upcoming test could improve test performance (Ramirez and Beilock, 2011). The intervention, a brief expressive writing assignment that occurred immediately before taking an important test, significantly improved students’ exam scores, especially for high math-anxious students. This study indicates that simply writing about one’s worries before a high-stakes event can boost performance. Whether this simple technique is also effective in other stressful situations awaits further test. The success of this intervention further corroborates the over-arousal theory of choking.

Negative thoughts and worries can also be curtailed by reappraisal or re-framing techniques. Reappraising the situation or the meaning of their anxiety provides threatened individuals a means to effectively cope with negative emotions. Reappraisal, particularly distraction, has been shown to alleviate choking under pressure (Balk et al., 2013). Re-framing metacognitive interpretation of difficulty, e.g., simply telling students that physiological responses (e.g., sweaty palms, rapid heartbeat) are beneficial for thinking and reasoning, can improve test performance in stressful situations (Autin and Croizet, 2012). Intuitively, any interventions that can keep pressure-induced worries at bay may also help in alleviating pressure-induced choking. However, it is important to note that emotion regulation during tasks may backfire because regulation also depletes executive resources needed to perform well. The fear extinction techniques used to diminish conditioned fear or phobias may also be considered in future studies (Monfils et al., 2009 Quirk et al., 2010). Traumatic choking under pressure experience may create a high-stakes situation and failure association. When in the stressful situation, the conditioned fear of failure is elicited and thus history repeats itself, creating a stress-failure cycle. The new stress-success link, if established, may overwrite the previously learned association and thus break the choking cycle.


Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem, and Self-Confidence

While self-efficacy, self-esteem, and self-confidence are all related and are sometimes used the same way, they aren't interchangeable. Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief about whether they can achieve their goals through their actions. Self-efficacy includes a variety of beliefs about both the self and the world, with those with high self-efficacy believing in themselves and their ability, and those with low self-efficacy believing that they are unable to accomplish their goals.

Self-esteem, unlike self-efficacy, refers to a sense of self-worth. People with low self-esteem are likely to think that they are unworthy or are bad people. While self-efficacy can refer to specific tasks, self-esteem is usually more general. For example, someone who's a bad singer might have low self-efficacy when it comes to how they view their voice, but they wouldn't have low self-esteem unless they placed all of their self-worth on their ability to sing.

Self-confidence is a less specific term that generally refers to an individual's certainty about a given belief. While related to self-efficacy, self-confidence is not specifically about the belief in one's own capabilities. Self-confidence is often used more colloquially and in non-academic settings to one's general beliefs about oneself. While low self-confidence is usually considered a bad thing, low self-efficacy can merely reflect an accurate understanding of one's own capabilities. Although in general, it is a positive thing to have high self-efficacy, self-esteem, and self-confidence, self-efficacy is the only belief concretely tied to real-world action.

How to Improve Self-Efficacy

Researchers suggest that self-efficacy should be slightly above your actual capacity for achieving goals. A slightly above-average level of self-efficacy ensures that you're always striving for bigger and better things, without shooting too high or aiming too low. A low sense of self-efficacy often results in people who underachieve and are easily discouraged, even when they are otherwise talented. Too high a level of self-efficacy, meanwhile, often leads people to overestimate their own competence. Here are a few tips for increasing self-efficacy:

  1. Set goals. Setting and achieving reasonable goals is an important component of building self-efficacy. Since self-efficacy builds on mastery and success, regularly setting and achieving goals can be a great way to gradually gain a new understanding of what you are capable of. It's important that the goals are within your reach since failing at a task can decrease self-efficacy. The more goals you achieve, the more likely you are to view your own capabilities in a different light.
  1. Maintain perspective. Getting a look at the bigger picture is also often helpful when trying to increase self-efficacy. While you might be down on yourself after a few big disappointments, chances are your colleagues, friends, and family feels differently. Taking the time to listen to the advice of those who know you well will help you to gain perspective on your situation and see things in a different light. Since verbal persuasion has been shown to increase self-efficacy, even a quick pep talk can have positive effects.
  1. Manage stress. Stress-management can be the key to overcoming difficult situations and persevering in the face of obstacles. Since low self-efficacy is often correlated with higher stress levels, it makes sense to think about reducing stress as a way of increasing self-efficacy. Whether you practice a few minutes of mindfulness, take a day off to reset, or just take a walk to clear your head, strategies for reducing stress can have a positive impact on self-efficacy and can help you to achieve your goals.

  1. Celebrate successes. No matter what the subject, an ambitious goal can often feel insurmountable and far away. It can be easy to get discouraged and give up when it doesn't seem like you're making any progress. You can mitigate this feeling by celebrating the little victories, whether that means a solid eight hours of work toward your goal, a small milestone recently achieved, or even just words of praise from a supervisor or friend. Turning these smaller stepping stones into reasons to celebrate will help increase your self-efficacy and move you further along to your goal.

Struggling with self-efficacy or interested in learning more? BetterHelp's diverse selection of online therapy services can provide you the help you need. Get in touch with us today!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

What is self efficacy theory in psychology?

Self efficacy refers to an individual&rsquos belief that they can carry out what is necessary to produce a certain outcome. One&rsquos sense of self efficacy greatly influences the goals they set for themselves and the energy they will exert towards a goal. Self efficacy theory, originally proposed by Albert Bandura, has been widely utilized in health psychology to influence behavior change in chronic disease management, smoking cessation, eating and exercise.

What are the 4 ways one can develop self efficacy?

Bandura notes four specific ways an individual develops a sense of self-efficacy, starting in childhood. These include mastery experiences (performing a task successfully), social modeling (seeing others performing a task successfully), social persuasion (receiving verbal encouragement), and psychological responses (minimizing our stress during difficult tasks or situations).

What are some examples of self efficacy?

An example of high self efficacy includes a man who has been struggling to quit smoking, but is feeling confident in the plan he has set in place with his therapist in order to work towards quitting. Another example is a student who is earning a low grade in a difficult course but believes she can put in the effort to learn the material and improve her grade by the end of the semester.

What are the two types of self efficacy?

The two types of self efficacy are high self efficacy and low self efficacy. Self efficacy is measured in various areas of life, therefore an individual may have high self efficacy in one area (like school or work) and low self efficacy in another area (like managing their health).

An individual with high self-efficacy is shown to have a deeper sense of commitment to their activities and bounce back quickly from setbacks. On the other hand, someone with low self efficacy is more likely to avoid difficult tasks, believe that they are incapable of handling challenging situations, and dwell on negative outcomes.

What is the difference between self efficacy and self confidence?

Though self efficacy and self confidence are related, there are distinct differences. Bandura emphasizes that confidence is not specific in what the certainty is about (for example, one could feel confident they will fail). Whereas, self efficacy refers to an individual&rsquos belief regarding their capability to carry out a certain task or achieve a goal.

What are the key principles of self efficacy theory?

Bandura notes four specific ways an individual develops a sense of self-efficacy, starting in childhood. These include mastery experiences (performing a task successfully), social modeling (seeing others performing a task successfully), social persuasion (receiving verbal encouragement), and psychological responses (minimizing our stress response during difficult circumstances).

Why is self efficacy important?

Albert Bandura states that self efficacy is crucial to how an individual approaches their goals and challenges they face. An individual with high self-efficacy has been proven to have a deeper sense of commitment to their activities and bounce back quickly from setbacks. However, someone with low self efficacy is more likely to avoid difficult tasks, believe that they are incapable of handling challenging situations and dwell on negative outcomes.

Is Self Efficacy a skill?

Self-efficacy can be thought of as a &ldquosituation-specific construct&rdquo that is highly dependent on different contexts. Bandura notes that our sense of self efficacy fluctuates and can be improved. Individuals may have a high self-efficacy in one area of life (such as work or school) and low self efficacy in another area, such as making healthy choices around eating and exercise.

Is Self Efficacy a personality trait?

Self efficacy is not thought to be a personality trait, as it easily fluctuates in different situations and contexts. However, one&rsquos personality can influence their sense of self efficacy in certain tasks. For example, a shy person may thrive in their workplace completing assignments alone (and have high self efficacy) but struggle with training a new employee (and have low self efficacy around this responsibility).

How do you use the word efficacy?

You can use the word efficacy to describe one&rsquos self-efficacy, which is defined as their belief in their own capabilities. For example, one might have a high sense of self-efficacy if they feel confident they can carry out a doctor&rsquos recommendations to manage their diabetes.

How can I make my sense of self stronger?

Strategies that may be helpful in building a firm sense of self include clearly defining your values, making your own choices, allotting more time for self-exploration, and working to align your life with your ideal self.

How does self efficacy affect behavior?

An individual with high self efficacy tends to exert more energy into meeting a goal or completing a task. High self efficacy is correlated with recovering quickly after facing setbacks, and showing continued commitment to a goal despite challenges that may arise.

How do you teach self efficacy?

Our self efficacy forms throughout life as we undergo new experiences and gain new understanding.

Bandura notes four specific ways an individual develops a sense of self-efficacy, including mastery experiences (performing a task successfully), social modeling (seeing others performing a task successfully), social persuasion (receiving verbal encouragement), and psychological responses (minimizing our stress response during difficult circumstances).

What is self efficacy theory of motivation?

The self efficacy theory of motivation posits that high self efficacy is correlated with higher motivation and performance levels. Those with high self efficacy feel more capable in their abilities to succeed and overcome challenges, which increases motivation and persistence when working toward a goal.

How is self efficacy measured?

Various assessment tools can be utilized to measure self-efficacy, such as Bandura&rsquos General Self Efficacy Scale. Another common tool is the Self-Efficacy survey (SES) which assesses self efficacy in ten key areas of life: intellectual, family, educational, professional, social, religious, erotic, moral, life and health. On each question, an individual marks 1 to 6 indicating strong agreement to strong disagreement, in order to calculate self-efficacy in different key areas.


Understanding the Psychology of Competition Has Broad Applications

When we think of competition, we often think first of sports, or perhaps of overtly competitive and adversarial fields such as law or finance. The truth is that competition is everywhere, in academic, social, professional and family settings alike. If you understand the psychology of competition, you have a deeper, more nuanced understanding of human behavior and motivation, and that has practical applications everywhere.


Relationship between Psychosocial Impairment, Food Choice Motives, and Orthorexic Behaviors among Polish Adults

Orthorexic behaviors correlate not only with health motives when choosing food but may also coexist with psychosocial impairment. The aim of this study was to assess the motives of food choice and psychosocial impairment among adults with orthorexic behaviors through the use of ORTO-15 and ORTO-7. The data for the study were collected from a sample of 1007 Polish adults through a cross-sectional quantitative survey conducted in 2019. The respondents were asked to complete the ORTO-15 questionnaire, the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), and the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA). Orthorexic behaviors were measured using both the 15-item and the shorter 7-item version of the ORTO questionnaire. To determine the factors coexisting with the orthorexic behaviors, linear regression models were developed. The scores of both ORTO-15 and ORTO-7 correlated positively with the global CIA scores and the scores of personal, cognitive, and social impairments, but compared to the ORTO-7 scores, the ORTO-15 scores showed weaker correlations with the global CIA score and individual CIA scales. Orthorexic behaviors measured with ORTO-15 correlated positively with such food choice motives as health, natural content, and weight control whereas orthorexic behaviors measured with ORTO-7 showed positive bivariate correlations only with two food choice motives: health and weight control. In regression models, sensory appeal, age, and education lower than secondary were associated inversely with orthorexic behaviors measured by both the ORTO-15 and the ORTO-7. In conclusion, the obtained results confirm that orthorexic behaviors are associated with a higher score regarding health motivation and cause an increase in psychosocial impairment. In addition, orthorexic behaviors are associated with greater importance of body weight control, which confirms the relationship between orthorexic behaviors and other eating disorders (ED), such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, similar motives for food choice displayed by the groups with higher scores of the ORTO-15 and the ORTO-7 and strong correlation between results obtained from both tools confirmed the similarity between these two questionnaires, thus revealing the weak psychometric properties also of the shorter seven-item version of the ORTO. Future studies on food motives, psychosocial impairment, and orthorexic behaviors should consider using other tools for measuring orthorexic behaviors.

Keywords: adults food choice motives orthorexic behaviors psychosocial impairment.


Are motivation and efficiency inversely correlated? - Psychology

In addition to being influenced by their goals, interests, and attributions, students’ motives are affected by specific beliefs about the student’s personal capacities. In self-efficacy theory the beliefs become a primary, explicit explanation for motivation (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1997). Self-efficacy is the belief that you are capable of carrying out a specific task or of reaching a specific goal. Note that the belief and the action or goal are specific. Self-efficacy is a belief that you can write an acceptable term paper, for example, or repair an automobile, or make friends with the new student in class. These are relatively specific beliefs and tasks. Self-efficacy is not about whether you believe that you are intelligent in general, whether you always like working with mechanical things, or think that you are generally a likeable person. These more general judgments are better regarded as various mixtures of self-concepts (beliefs about general personal identity) or of self-esteem (evaluations of identity). They are important in their own right, and sometimes influence motivation, but only indirectly (Bong & Skaalvik, 2004). Self-efficacy beliefs, furthermore, are not the same as “true” or documented skill or ability. They are self-constructed, meaning that they are personally developed perceptions. There can sometimes therefore be discrepancies between a person’s self-efficacy beliefs and the person’s abilities. You can believe that you can write a good term paper, for example, without actually being able to do so, and vice versa: you can believe yourself incapable of writing a paper, but discover that you are in fact able to do so. In this way self-efficacy is like the everyday idea of confidence, except that it is defined more precisely. And as with confidence, it is possible to have either too much or too little self-efficacy. The optimum level seems to be either at or slightly above true capacity (Bandura, 1997). As we indicate below, large discrepancies between self-efficacy and ability can create motivational problems for the individual.


New Study Shows Correlation Between Employee Engagement And The Long-Lost Lunch Break

Many American employees strive to perform their best in the workplace. They work overtime, agree to take on extra projects and rarely take a step away from their desk. In reality, this “work hard” mentality isn’t effective – and it’s definitely unhealthy. Employees who believe that they must work 24/7 to achieve a good standing in the workplace have the wrong idea. And unfortunately, employees often gain this idea through employers’ attitudes.

Chaining yourself to a desk or scarfing down your lunch in your cubicle isn’t a recipe for success – it’s a recipe for disaster. Without taking adequate breaks from work, employee productivity, mental well-being and overall work performance begin to suffer. Overworked employees often deal with chronic stress that can easily lead to job burnout. While this not only negatively affects employee health and well-being, it negatively affects the bottom line, too.

This is why it’s important that employers start encouraging employees to take breaks throughout the workday – especially lunch breaks. These breaks are essential in helping employees de-stress and re-charge for the rest of the workday. Regular breaks can also help improve overall job satisfaction. A recent survey by Tork shows exactly how important lunch breaks are, along with how rare they are in the North American workplace.

  • Nearly 20% of North American workers worry their bosses won’t think they are hardworking if they take regular lunch breaks, while 13% worry their co-workers will judge them.
  • 38% of employees don’t feel encouraged to take a lunch break.
  • 22% of North American bosses say that employees who take a regular lunch break are less hardworking.

These statistics are really a shame because regular breaks create better employees. In fact, according to the Tork survey, nearly 90% of North American employees claim that taking a lunch breaks helps them feel refreshed and ready to get back to work. There are many research-backed health, wellness and performance benefits of taking breaks. Here are just a few examples of the benefits of regular breaks:

  • Increased productivity. While taking breaks might sound counterintuitive when it comes to boosting productivity, it’s one of the best ways to do so. Employees gain focus and energy after stepping away from their desks. A lunch break can help prevent an unproductive, mid-afternoon slump.
  • Improved mental well-being. Employees need time to recharge. Stress is incredibly common in the North American workplace, and it has detrimental effects on employees. Taking some time away from the desk to go for a quick walk or enjoy a healthy lunch helps release some of this stress and improves mental well-being.
  • Creativity boost. Taking a break can give employees a fresh perspective on challenging projects. It’s hard for employees to develop new ideas or solutions when they’ve been looking at the same thing all day. A lunch break will most certainly help get those creative juices flowing.
  • More time for healthy habits. Regular breaks, including a lunch break, give employees time to practice healthy habits in the workplace. They can use break times to make a healthy lunch, exercise, meditate, or engage in a self-care activity.

Besides these awesome benefits of regular breaks, the Tork survey also revealed that employees who take a lunch break on a daily basis feel more valued by their employer, and 81% of employees who take a daily lunch break having a strong desire to be an active member in their company. North American employees who take a lunch break every day scored higher on a range of engagement metrics, including job satisfaction, likelihood to continue working at the same company and likelihood to recommend their employer to others.

I recently spoke with Jennifer Deal, the Senior Research Scientist at the Center for Creative Leadership and Affiliated Research Scientist at the Center for Effective Organizations at University of Southern California (USC). She had this to say about Tork’s research and employee lunch breaks:

“The Tork research shows that employees who take a lunch break are more likely to be satisfied with their job, and say they are as effective and efficient as they would like to be. This is consistent with other research, which shows that taking breaks from work is important for recovery – and adequate recovery is critical for top performance. Energy isn’t unlimited, and just as athletes have halftime to rest during a game, employees need to rest so they can do their best work. Taking a break in the middle of the day for lunch is a recovery period, allowing employees to come back refreshed and reinvigorated for the second half – as this research clearly shows.”

Both Tork and Jennifer agree: employers will benefit from employees who take breaks. But how can employers change the mentality that “breaks are for slackers” in the workplace? Below are a few tips for encouraging employees to take breaks at your office:

  • Revamp break rooms. Be sure that the office has at least one break room for employees to retreat to whenever they need some time away from their desks. Provide comfortable furniture along with table and chairs for eating lunch. Employees will be more inclined to take breaks and lunch breaks when they have a comfortable space to do so.
  • Provide incentives. As a part of your workplace wellness program, offer employees some sort of incentive for taking regular breaks and a daily lunch break. Try creating a “break challenge” and have employees document their breaks throughout the day. Reward employees for their participation.
  • Discuss the benefits. Many employees aren’t aware of all the health and productivity benefits of regular breaks. Send out an email blast, put up some flyers or have managers give talks about the importance of taking some time away from the desk.
  • Take breaks yourself. Leading by example is always the best route. When employees see that their managers are taking lunch breaks and taking short breaks throughout the day, they’ll feel more encouraged to take breaks, too.

While the act of encouraging breaks is a huge step in the right direction, it’s also important to ensure that these breaks are healthy. For example, employees could potentially use break time for unhealthy habits such as getting fast food, smoking or scrolling through social media. Spending break time practicing poor health habits won’t yield productivity and wellness benefits.

Although employers can’t necessarily control how employees utilize their break time, they can certainly encourage healthy habits in the workplace. Here are some healthy break ideas:

  • Walking clubs. Team walking clubs are an excellent way to encourage regular breaks and physical activity. Encourage employees to form walking clubs with their colleagues and take two 10-minute walks each workday.
  • Healthy snacking. Stock company kitchens and break rooms with healthy snacking options like fresh fruit, veggies, hummus, and nuts. Encourage employees to take a midday break and do some healthy snacking together
  • Gym time. If employees really don’t want to leave the workplace for lunch, encourage them to use the gym instead. If you have an onsite gym, allow employees 30-minutes of on-the-clock time to use the facility. If you don’t have an onsite gym, consider bringing in a weekly yoga instructor or providing vouchers for gym memberships.
  • Socialize. Quality work relationships improve both mental and physical health. They help reduce stress and boost job satisfaction. Encourage employees to take breaks together by providing a game room or fun weekly team activities.
  • Quiet time. Sometimes break time is best spent as quiet time. Offer employees a quiet area to retreat to when they need to clear their minds and recharge. Employees can use this space to meditate, read or listen to some relaxing music.

Encouraging employees to take regular breaks throughout the day, including lunch breaks, is an easy way for employers to boost employee wellness along with work performance. Employers don’t want overworked employees running their business – it’s terrible for the bottom line. Help your employees feel refreshed and reduce some stress by allowing them to take regular breaks throughout the workday.


New Study Shows Correlation Between Employee Engagement And The Long-Lost Lunch Break

Many American employees strive to perform their best in the workplace. They work overtime, agree to take on extra projects and rarely take a step away from their desk. In reality, this “work hard” mentality isn’t effective – and it’s definitely unhealthy. Employees who believe that they must work 24/7 to achieve a good standing in the workplace have the wrong idea. And unfortunately, employees often gain this idea through employers’ attitudes.

Chaining yourself to a desk or scarfing down your lunch in your cubicle isn’t a recipe for success – it’s a recipe for disaster. Without taking adequate breaks from work, employee productivity, mental well-being and overall work performance begin to suffer. Overworked employees often deal with chronic stress that can easily lead to job burnout. While this not only negatively affects employee health and well-being, it negatively affects the bottom line, too.

This is why it’s important that employers start encouraging employees to take breaks throughout the workday – especially lunch breaks. These breaks are essential in helping employees de-stress and re-charge for the rest of the workday. Regular breaks can also help improve overall job satisfaction. A recent survey by Tork shows exactly how important lunch breaks are, along with how rare they are in the North American workplace.

  • Nearly 20% of North American workers worry their bosses won’t think they are hardworking if they take regular lunch breaks, while 13% worry their co-workers will judge them.
  • 38% of employees don’t feel encouraged to take a lunch break.
  • 22% of North American bosses say that employees who take a regular lunch break are less hardworking.

These statistics are really a shame because regular breaks create better employees. In fact, according to the Tork survey, nearly 90% of North American employees claim that taking a lunch breaks helps them feel refreshed and ready to get back to work. There are many research-backed health, wellness and performance benefits of taking breaks. Here are just a few examples of the benefits of regular breaks:

  • Increased productivity. While taking breaks might sound counterintuitive when it comes to boosting productivity, it’s one of the best ways to do so. Employees gain focus and energy after stepping away from their desks. A lunch break can help prevent an unproductive, mid-afternoon slump.
  • Improved mental well-being. Employees need time to recharge. Stress is incredibly common in the North American workplace, and it has detrimental effects on employees. Taking some time away from the desk to go for a quick walk or enjoy a healthy lunch helps release some of this stress and improves mental well-being.
  • Creativity boost. Taking a break can give employees a fresh perspective on challenging projects. It’s hard for employees to develop new ideas or solutions when they’ve been looking at the same thing all day. A lunch break will most certainly help get those creative juices flowing.
  • More time for healthy habits. Regular breaks, including a lunch break, give employees time to practice healthy habits in the workplace. They can use break times to make a healthy lunch, exercise, meditate, or engage in a self-care activity.

Besides these awesome benefits of regular breaks, the Tork survey also revealed that employees who take a lunch break on a daily basis feel more valued by their employer, and 81% of employees who take a daily lunch break having a strong desire to be an active member in their company. North American employees who take a lunch break every day scored higher on a range of engagement metrics, including job satisfaction, likelihood to continue working at the same company and likelihood to recommend their employer to others.

I recently spoke with Jennifer Deal, the Senior Research Scientist at the Center for Creative Leadership and Affiliated Research Scientist at the Center for Effective Organizations at University of Southern California (USC). She had this to say about Tork’s research and employee lunch breaks:

“The Tork research shows that employees who take a lunch break are more likely to be satisfied with their job, and say they are as effective and efficient as they would like to be. This is consistent with other research, which shows that taking breaks from work is important for recovery – and adequate recovery is critical for top performance. Energy isn’t unlimited, and just as athletes have halftime to rest during a game, employees need to rest so they can do their best work. Taking a break in the middle of the day for lunch is a recovery period, allowing employees to come back refreshed and reinvigorated for the second half – as this research clearly shows.”

Both Tork and Jennifer agree: employers will benefit from employees who take breaks. But how can employers change the mentality that “breaks are for slackers” in the workplace? Below are a few tips for encouraging employees to take breaks at your office:

  • Revamp break rooms. Be sure that the office has at least one break room for employees to retreat to whenever they need some time away from their desks. Provide comfortable furniture along with table and chairs for eating lunch. Employees will be more inclined to take breaks and lunch breaks when they have a comfortable space to do so.
  • Provide incentives. As a part of your workplace wellness program, offer employees some sort of incentive for taking regular breaks and a daily lunch break. Try creating a “break challenge” and have employees document their breaks throughout the day. Reward employees for their participation.
  • Discuss the benefits. Many employees aren’t aware of all the health and productivity benefits of regular breaks. Send out an email blast, put up some flyers or have managers give talks about the importance of taking some time away from the desk.
  • Take breaks yourself. Leading by example is always the best route. When employees see that their managers are taking lunch breaks and taking short breaks throughout the day, they’ll feel more encouraged to take breaks, too.

While the act of encouraging breaks is a huge step in the right direction, it’s also important to ensure that these breaks are healthy. For example, employees could potentially use break time for unhealthy habits such as getting fast food, smoking or scrolling through social media. Spending break time practicing poor health habits won’t yield productivity and wellness benefits.

Although employers can’t necessarily control how employees utilize their break time, they can certainly encourage healthy habits in the workplace. Here are some healthy break ideas:

  • Walking clubs. Team walking clubs are an excellent way to encourage regular breaks and physical activity. Encourage employees to form walking clubs with their colleagues and take two 10-minute walks each workday.
  • Healthy snacking. Stock company kitchens and break rooms with healthy snacking options like fresh fruit, veggies, hummus, and nuts. Encourage employees to take a midday break and do some healthy snacking together
  • Gym time. If employees really don’t want to leave the workplace for lunch, encourage them to use the gym instead. If you have an onsite gym, allow employees 30-minutes of on-the-clock time to use the facility. If you don’t have an onsite gym, consider bringing in a weekly yoga instructor or providing vouchers for gym memberships.
  • Socialize. Quality work relationships improve both mental and physical health. They help reduce stress and boost job satisfaction. Encourage employees to take breaks together by providing a game room or fun weekly team activities.
  • Quiet time. Sometimes break time is best spent as quiet time. Offer employees a quiet area to retreat to when they need to clear their minds and recharge. Employees can use this space to meditate, read or listen to some relaxing music.

Encouraging employees to take regular breaks throughout the day, including lunch breaks, is an easy way for employers to boost employee wellness along with work performance. Employers don’t want overworked employees running their business – it’s terrible for the bottom line. Help your employees feel refreshed and reduce some stress by allowing them to take regular breaks throughout the workday.


Combating Choking Under Pressure

Based on our knowledge of the precursors of choking, interventions for performance under pressure can be developed to combat choking in high-stakes situations. Several recent studies have already directly examined how a variety of interventions can mitigate the choking effect. These interventions in turn can also increase our understanding of why pressure-filled exam situations undermine some students’ performance.

If the ability of working memory to maintain task focus is disrupted because of situation-related worries, performance can suffer. Anxiety and worries compete for the working memory available for performance. Before anxiety has a chance to reduce actual performance, eliminating one’s initial anxiety response at the early stage seems to be important. Expressive writing, in which people repeatedly write about a traumatic or emotional experience in the past, has been shown to be effective in decreasing rumination in depressed individuals (Smyth, 1998). Writing may alleviate the burden that worries place on working memory by affording people an opportunity to reevaluate the stressful experience in a manner that reduces the necessity to worry altogether. In two laboratory and two randomized field experiments, a recent study found that having students write down their thoughts about an upcoming test could improve test performance (Ramirez and Beilock, 2011). The intervention, a brief expressive writing assignment that occurred immediately before taking an important test, significantly improved students’ exam scores, especially for high math-anxious students. This study indicates that simply writing about one’s worries before a high-stakes event can boost performance. Whether this simple technique is also effective in other stressful situations awaits further test. The success of this intervention further corroborates the over-arousal theory of choking.

Negative thoughts and worries can also be curtailed by reappraisal or re-framing techniques. Reappraising the situation or the meaning of their anxiety provides threatened individuals a means to effectively cope with negative emotions. Reappraisal, particularly distraction, has been shown to alleviate choking under pressure (Balk et al., 2013). Re-framing metacognitive interpretation of difficulty, e.g., simply telling students that physiological responses (e.g., sweaty palms, rapid heartbeat) are beneficial for thinking and reasoning, can improve test performance in stressful situations (Autin and Croizet, 2012). Intuitively, any interventions that can keep pressure-induced worries at bay may also help in alleviating pressure-induced choking. However, it is important to note that emotion regulation during tasks may backfire because regulation also depletes executive resources needed to perform well. The fear extinction techniques used to diminish conditioned fear or phobias may also be considered in future studies (Monfils et al., 2009 Quirk et al., 2010). Traumatic choking under pressure experience may create a high-stakes situation and failure association. When in the stressful situation, the conditioned fear of failure is elicited and thus history repeats itself, creating a stress-failure cycle. The new stress-success link, if established, may overwrite the previously learned association and thus break the choking cycle.


Are motivation and efficiency inversely correlated? - Psychology

In addition to being influenced by their goals, interests, and attributions, students’ motives are affected by specific beliefs about the student’s personal capacities. In self-efficacy theory the beliefs become a primary, explicit explanation for motivation (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1997). Self-efficacy is the belief that you are capable of carrying out a specific task or of reaching a specific goal. Note that the belief and the action or goal are specific. Self-efficacy is a belief that you can write an acceptable term paper, for example, or repair an automobile, or make friends with the new student in class. These are relatively specific beliefs and tasks. Self-efficacy is not about whether you believe that you are intelligent in general, whether you always like working with mechanical things, or think that you are generally a likeable person. These more general judgments are better regarded as various mixtures of self-concepts (beliefs about general personal identity) or of self-esteem (evaluations of identity). They are important in their own right, and sometimes influence motivation, but only indirectly (Bong & Skaalvik, 2004). Self-efficacy beliefs, furthermore, are not the same as “true” or documented skill or ability. They are self-constructed, meaning that they are personally developed perceptions. There can sometimes therefore be discrepancies between a person’s self-efficacy beliefs and the person’s abilities. You can believe that you can write a good term paper, for example, without actually being able to do so, and vice versa: you can believe yourself incapable of writing a paper, but discover that you are in fact able to do so. In this way self-efficacy is like the everyday idea of confidence, except that it is defined more precisely. And as with confidence, it is possible to have either too much or too little self-efficacy. The optimum level seems to be either at or slightly above true capacity (Bandura, 1997). As we indicate below, large discrepancies between self-efficacy and ability can create motivational problems for the individual.


The Social Brain is a Complex Super-Network

Lynn Waterhouse , in Rethinking Autism , 2013

Primary Social Motivation Failure Resulting in Secondary Social Deficits

Dawson (2008) outlined the social motivation theory of autism. She argued that autism social deficits are caused by an initial failure in social motivation. She proposed that the specific social impairments in social orienting, joint attention, responses to emotions, imitation, and face processing are the result of less engagement with the social world ( Dawson, 2008 , p. 786) rather than being primary deficits themselves. Dawson asserted that “Because experience drives cortical specialization … reduced attention to people, including their faces, gestures, and speech, also results in a failure of specialization and less efficient function of brain regions that mediate social cognition” (2008, p. 787). Dawson (2008) suggested that the dopamine reward system and the oxytocin affiliation system may be disrupted in autism, causing a lack of social motivation.

Similar to Dawson’s hypothesis, Gordon et al. (2011) theorized social motivation to derive from the interaction of oxytocin functions with the dopamine reward system. However, as outlined above, Gordon et al. (2011) proposed that attachment is the primary goal of social motivation, and, as noted above, a majority of individuals with autism have been found to be attached to their parents or caretakers ( Naber et al., 2007 Rutgers et al., 2004 ). In addition, there is significant evidence that many of the impairments in social behavior that Dawson relegates to secondary effects of impaired social motivation are likely to be primary impairments.

Bennetto et al. (2007) reported that individuals with autism were impaired in olfactory identification, and olfactory task skill was inversely correlated with degree of autism social impairment. The olfactory system may be damaged by illness, or maldeveloped due to genetic factors, but would not be disrupted by impaired social motivation. Klin et al. (2009) reported that 2-year-olds with autism did not orient to displays of biological motion. Because orienting to biological motion predates social motivation in animal evolution, it is unlikely that such a primitive and conserved system would be modified by lack of social motivation.

There may be a subset of individuals diagnosed with autism who are born with an impairment in some combination of oxytocin and dopamine, or their receptors, or their integration into a social reward network. For these individuals with autism, the initial failure of social motivation would result in absent social attachment in infancy. This initial lack of social motivation might or might not be a devolving force for social cognition impairment in autism.


Relationship between Psychosocial Impairment, Food Choice Motives, and Orthorexic Behaviors among Polish Adults

Orthorexic behaviors correlate not only with health motives when choosing food but may also coexist with psychosocial impairment. The aim of this study was to assess the motives of food choice and psychosocial impairment among adults with orthorexic behaviors through the use of ORTO-15 and ORTO-7. The data for the study were collected from a sample of 1007 Polish adults through a cross-sectional quantitative survey conducted in 2019. The respondents were asked to complete the ORTO-15 questionnaire, the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), and the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA). Orthorexic behaviors were measured using both the 15-item and the shorter 7-item version of the ORTO questionnaire. To determine the factors coexisting with the orthorexic behaviors, linear regression models were developed. The scores of both ORTO-15 and ORTO-7 correlated positively with the global CIA scores and the scores of personal, cognitive, and social impairments, but compared to the ORTO-7 scores, the ORTO-15 scores showed weaker correlations with the global CIA score and individual CIA scales. Orthorexic behaviors measured with ORTO-15 correlated positively with such food choice motives as health, natural content, and weight control whereas orthorexic behaviors measured with ORTO-7 showed positive bivariate correlations only with two food choice motives: health and weight control. In regression models, sensory appeal, age, and education lower than secondary were associated inversely with orthorexic behaviors measured by both the ORTO-15 and the ORTO-7. In conclusion, the obtained results confirm that orthorexic behaviors are associated with a higher score regarding health motivation and cause an increase in psychosocial impairment. In addition, orthorexic behaviors are associated with greater importance of body weight control, which confirms the relationship between orthorexic behaviors and other eating disorders (ED), such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, similar motives for food choice displayed by the groups with higher scores of the ORTO-15 and the ORTO-7 and strong correlation between results obtained from both tools confirmed the similarity between these two questionnaires, thus revealing the weak psychometric properties also of the shorter seven-item version of the ORTO. Future studies on food motives, psychosocial impairment, and orthorexic behaviors should consider using other tools for measuring orthorexic behaviors.

Keywords: adults food choice motives orthorexic behaviors psychosocial impairment.


Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem, and Self-Confidence

While self-efficacy, self-esteem, and self-confidence are all related and are sometimes used the same way, they aren't interchangeable. Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief about whether they can achieve their goals through their actions. Self-efficacy includes a variety of beliefs about both the self and the world, with those with high self-efficacy believing in themselves and their ability, and those with low self-efficacy believing that they are unable to accomplish their goals.

Self-esteem, unlike self-efficacy, refers to a sense of self-worth. People with low self-esteem are likely to think that they are unworthy or are bad people. While self-efficacy can refer to specific tasks, self-esteem is usually more general. For example, someone who's a bad singer might have low self-efficacy when it comes to how they view their voice, but they wouldn't have low self-esteem unless they placed all of their self-worth on their ability to sing.

Self-confidence is a less specific term that generally refers to an individual's certainty about a given belief. While related to self-efficacy, self-confidence is not specifically about the belief in one's own capabilities. Self-confidence is often used more colloquially and in non-academic settings to one's general beliefs about oneself. While low self-confidence is usually considered a bad thing, low self-efficacy can merely reflect an accurate understanding of one's own capabilities. Although in general, it is a positive thing to have high self-efficacy, self-esteem, and self-confidence, self-efficacy is the only belief concretely tied to real-world action.

How to Improve Self-Efficacy

Researchers suggest that self-efficacy should be slightly above your actual capacity for achieving goals. A slightly above-average level of self-efficacy ensures that you're always striving for bigger and better things, without shooting too high or aiming too low. A low sense of self-efficacy often results in people who underachieve and are easily discouraged, even when they are otherwise talented. Too high a level of self-efficacy, meanwhile, often leads people to overestimate their own competence. Here are a few tips for increasing self-efficacy:

  1. Set goals. Setting and achieving reasonable goals is an important component of building self-efficacy. Since self-efficacy builds on mastery and success, regularly setting and achieving goals can be a great way to gradually gain a new understanding of what you are capable of. It's important that the goals are within your reach since failing at a task can decrease self-efficacy. The more goals you achieve, the more likely you are to view your own capabilities in a different light.
  1. Maintain perspective. Getting a look at the bigger picture is also often helpful when trying to increase self-efficacy. While you might be down on yourself after a few big disappointments, chances are your colleagues, friends, and family feels differently. Taking the time to listen to the advice of those who know you well will help you to gain perspective on your situation and see things in a different light. Since verbal persuasion has been shown to increase self-efficacy, even a quick pep talk can have positive effects.
  1. Manage stress. Stress-management can be the key to overcoming difficult situations and persevering in the face of obstacles. Since low self-efficacy is often correlated with higher stress levels, it makes sense to think about reducing stress as a way of increasing self-efficacy. Whether you practice a few minutes of mindfulness, take a day off to reset, or just take a walk to clear your head, strategies for reducing stress can have a positive impact on self-efficacy and can help you to achieve your goals.

  1. Celebrate successes. No matter what the subject, an ambitious goal can often feel insurmountable and far away. It can be easy to get discouraged and give up when it doesn't seem like you're making any progress. You can mitigate this feeling by celebrating the little victories, whether that means a solid eight hours of work toward your goal, a small milestone recently achieved, or even just words of praise from a supervisor or friend. Turning these smaller stepping stones into reasons to celebrate will help increase your self-efficacy and move you further along to your goal.

Struggling with self-efficacy or interested in learning more? BetterHelp's diverse selection of online therapy services can provide you the help you need. Get in touch with us today!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

What is self efficacy theory in psychology?

Self efficacy refers to an individual&rsquos belief that they can carry out what is necessary to produce a certain outcome. One&rsquos sense of self efficacy greatly influences the goals they set for themselves and the energy they will exert towards a goal. Self efficacy theory, originally proposed by Albert Bandura, has been widely utilized in health psychology to influence behavior change in chronic disease management, smoking cessation, eating and exercise.

What are the 4 ways one can develop self efficacy?

Bandura notes four specific ways an individual develops a sense of self-efficacy, starting in childhood. These include mastery experiences (performing a task successfully), social modeling (seeing others performing a task successfully), social persuasion (receiving verbal encouragement), and psychological responses (minimizing our stress during difficult tasks or situations).

What are some examples of self efficacy?

An example of high self efficacy includes a man who has been struggling to quit smoking, but is feeling confident in the plan he has set in place with his therapist in order to work towards quitting. Another example is a student who is earning a low grade in a difficult course but believes she can put in the effort to learn the material and improve her grade by the end of the semester.

What are the two types of self efficacy?

The two types of self efficacy are high self efficacy and low self efficacy. Self efficacy is measured in various areas of life, therefore an individual may have high self efficacy in one area (like school or work) and low self efficacy in another area (like managing their health).

An individual with high self-efficacy is shown to have a deeper sense of commitment to their activities and bounce back quickly from setbacks. On the other hand, someone with low self efficacy is more likely to avoid difficult tasks, believe that they are incapable of handling challenging situations, and dwell on negative outcomes.

What is the difference between self efficacy and self confidence?

Though self efficacy and self confidence are related, there are distinct differences. Bandura emphasizes that confidence is not specific in what the certainty is about (for example, one could feel confident they will fail). Whereas, self efficacy refers to an individual&rsquos belief regarding their capability to carry out a certain task or achieve a goal.

What are the key principles of self efficacy theory?

Bandura notes four specific ways an individual develops a sense of self-efficacy, starting in childhood. These include mastery experiences (performing a task successfully), social modeling (seeing others performing a task successfully), social persuasion (receiving verbal encouragement), and psychological responses (minimizing our stress response during difficult circumstances).

Why is self efficacy important?

Albert Bandura states that self efficacy is crucial to how an individual approaches their goals and challenges they face. An individual with high self-efficacy has been proven to have a deeper sense of commitment to their activities and bounce back quickly from setbacks. However, someone with low self efficacy is more likely to avoid difficult tasks, believe that they are incapable of handling challenging situations and dwell on negative outcomes.

Is Self Efficacy a skill?

Self-efficacy can be thought of as a &ldquosituation-specific construct&rdquo that is highly dependent on different contexts. Bandura notes that our sense of self efficacy fluctuates and can be improved. Individuals may have a high self-efficacy in one area of life (such as work or school) and low self efficacy in another area, such as making healthy choices around eating and exercise.

Is Self Efficacy a personality trait?

Self efficacy is not thought to be a personality trait, as it easily fluctuates in different situations and contexts. However, one&rsquos personality can influence their sense of self efficacy in certain tasks. For example, a shy person may thrive in their workplace completing assignments alone (and have high self efficacy) but struggle with training a new employee (and have low self efficacy around this responsibility).

How do you use the word efficacy?

You can use the word efficacy to describe one&rsquos self-efficacy, which is defined as their belief in their own capabilities. For example, one might have a high sense of self-efficacy if they feel confident they can carry out a doctor&rsquos recommendations to manage their diabetes.

How can I make my sense of self stronger?

Strategies that may be helpful in building a firm sense of self include clearly defining your values, making your own choices, allotting more time for self-exploration, and working to align your life with your ideal self.

How does self efficacy affect behavior?

An individual with high self efficacy tends to exert more energy into meeting a goal or completing a task. High self efficacy is correlated with recovering quickly after facing setbacks, and showing continued commitment to a goal despite challenges that may arise.

How do you teach self efficacy?

Our self efficacy forms throughout life as we undergo new experiences and gain new understanding.

Bandura notes four specific ways an individual develops a sense of self-efficacy, including mastery experiences (performing a task successfully), social modeling (seeing others performing a task successfully), social persuasion (receiving verbal encouragement), and psychological responses (minimizing our stress response during difficult circumstances).

What is self efficacy theory of motivation?

The self efficacy theory of motivation posits that high self efficacy is correlated with higher motivation and performance levels. Those with high self efficacy feel more capable in their abilities to succeed and overcome challenges, which increases motivation and persistence when working toward a goal.

How is self efficacy measured?

Various assessment tools can be utilized to measure self-efficacy, such as Bandura&rsquos General Self Efficacy Scale. Another common tool is the Self-Efficacy survey (SES) which assesses self efficacy in ten key areas of life: intellectual, family, educational, professional, social, religious, erotic, moral, life and health. On each question, an individual marks 1 to 6 indicating strong agreement to strong disagreement, in order to calculate self-efficacy in different key areas.


Understanding the Psychology of Competition Has Broad Applications

When we think of competition, we often think first of sports, or perhaps of overtly competitive and adversarial fields such as law or finance. The truth is that competition is everywhere, in academic, social, professional and family settings alike. If you understand the psychology of competition, you have a deeper, more nuanced understanding of human behavior and motivation, and that has practical applications everywhere.


In his article, Lepper, and corpus involved seven hundred and ninety-seven third-grade participants to the learners at the eighth grade from two different schools from the San Francisco district around the California&rsquos Bay Area. In the first district, the study included 577 participants, from large urban region, whereas the second district constituted about 220 participants in the suburban area identified for great performance in academics. Generally, the subjects that were selected in this study were divided equally across the different grading levels starting from grade three to grad.

The number of the female participants were equal to that of the male participants with one of the participants not providing his sex details. The total population sample was made up of Asian Americans (42%), African Americans (2%), Caucasian (34%), Hispanic (5%), and children from different ethnic groups (10). The Chinese, and the Indian America, Japanese American, Korean American, Filipino American, and Vietnamese American,were identified as Asian subjects. During the study Lepper, and corpus used a questionnaire as a tool for collecting data.

Questionnaires together with separate indices of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and the vital questions of demography on age, sex, and ethnicity were given to the participants after obtaining the consent from their parents in the classrooms of participating. For the participants from the second district, the social desirability measure was taken into consideration in the questionnaire.


Immuno-suppression (Immune system shuts down)

Sympathetic arousal has been shown to dampen immune function.

  • When our immune systems shut down in a state of stress this is called immunosupression.
  • Prolonged or repeated exposure to stress results in inhibited leucocyte and lymphocite production. These are responsible for creating antibodies and antigens which attack viruses and infections.
  • Numerous investigations with both laboratory animals and human participants have revealed that stress suppresses the immune system.
  • Riley (1981) exposed mice with cancer cells and divided them into high stress conditions and low/no stress conditions. The mice in the high stress condition went on the develop tumours whereas the no stress group did not. There was a clear difference between the two groups in terms of lymphocite production.
  • There are also a range of T-cells which perform various functions in relation to viruses, bacteria and other infectious agents. Corticosteroids are known to suppress immune functioning leading to inhibited T-cell production.
  • Whilst short term immune suppression is relatively harmless, repeated or long term immunosuppression may be dangerous (Willis et al, 1987)
  • Kiecolt-Glaser et al. (1984) studied responses to stress by taking blood samples from 75 first year medical students (49 males and 26 females).
  • The samples were taken one month before their finals and again on the first day after their examinations commenced, when the students’ stress levels should be at their highest.
  • Kiecolt-Glaser et al. found that natural killer T – cell activity declined between the two samples, confirming other research findings that stress is associated with a reduced immune response.
  • The volunteers were also assessed using behavioural measures. On both occasions they were given questionnaires to assess psychiatric symptoms, loneliness, and life events. This is because there are theories which suggest that all three are associated with increased levels of stress.
  • Kiecolt-Glaser et al. found that immune responses were especially weak in those students who reported feeling most lonely, as well as those who were experiencing other stressful life events and psychiatric symptoms such as depression or anxiety.
  • There were two key findings from this study. One was that stress was associated with a lowered immune response in humans. The second was that there were a number of different sources of stress and factors that moderate or increase it.
  • In further research Kiecolt –Glaser et al. (1984, 1987) devised ways of measuring the activity of the immune system from blood samples. They then compared immune function in control groups with groups accepted to be under chronic stress, and found significant immunosuppression in these high-risk groups (Kiecolt-Glaser et al 1984, 1987):
  • unhappily married women, recently separated women, especially if they were unhappy about the separation, long-term carers for Alzheimer patients
  • Other researchers have reported similar findings for the recently bereaved (Antoni 1987), and recently, Kiecolt-Glaser’s group have found reductions in immune function in couples even after short episodes of marital conflict (Kiecolt-Glaser et al 1998).

First of all, it was a natural experiment which means that there can be fewer ethical objections.

Another advantage of this study, related to the choice of independent variable (exam stress), is that it was a long-term form of stress.

Stress and immune response are negatively correlated (as one increases the other decreases), but we cannot say that one caused the other.

Further, not all people exposed to high levels of stress developed disorders (hence the relatively low correlations between these in life-event studies)

Finally there may have been a number of confounding variables such as lifestyle which skewed the results


Watch the video: How to Rewire your Brain to Optimize Productivity - Be More Productive (August 2022).