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Relationship between social psychology and educational psychology

Relationship between social psychology and educational psychology



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For some time I have been trying to figure out what the connection between social psychology and educational psychology is. By their definition, it seems that there at least one (major) point of connection. Both disciplines have the term "psychology" in their title.

However, if you go further to investigate the connection, you might find that Wikipedia entry on educational psychology seems a bit confusing:

"Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the **social psychology of schools as organizations."

Does it mean that social psychology should be considered as a part/subdiscipline of educational psychology?


No, social psychology is not a subfield of educational psychology. Social psychology is one of the basic disciplines of psychology (like e.g. personality psychology or developmental psychology), whereas educational psychology is an applied discipline (like e.g. clinical psychology or industrial/organizational psychology). A sort of standard definition of social psychology is, that it is the

the study of the manner in which the personality, attitudes, motivations, and behavior of the individual influence and are influenced by social groups. (Merriam-Webster, 2013)

This means that as soon as there is some sort of social interaction involved in an educational setting, both disciplines are concerned.

References:

Merriam-Webster. (August 2013). Social Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20psychology


In short, there is no simple answer to your question. First, you have to ask what do you consider a discipline. You should considered and research the following questions:

  1. Is there a community of researchers that is actively engaged in debates?
  2. Is there a set of journals and conferences that are more related to social psychology (SP) or educational psychology(EP)
  3. Is there a corpus of work that is usually refer as key to social psychology or educational psychology?
  4. Are the associations dedicated to solely SP and EP?
  5. Is there a set of methods that are used and developed solely by SP and EP?

You should ask about relationship between social psychology and educational psychology only after you answer "yes" to the questions above. In other case you only talk about two fields that psychology/psychologists focus their attention.

To conclude, you have to make more research on the disciplinary status of both social and educational psychology.

I would recomend Krishnan (2009) regarding the interdisciplinary relations. A good introduction to disciplinarity is also there.

Krishnan, A. (2009). What are academic disciplines. Some observations on the Disciplinarity vs. Interdisciplinarity Ddebate. ESRC National Centre for Research Methods. Universitty of Southhampton, 63.


Issues and Controversies

The application of psychology to education has seen many controversies. The psychological content of teacher preparation moved from Hall's emphasis on child study to Thorndike's connectionist approach to learning to educational psychology texts for teachers in the 1920s that included measurement and the psychology of school subjects to an emphasis in the 1950s on mental hygiene, child development, personality, and motivation to a greater emphasis on learning theories and programmed instruction in the 1960s to research on teaching in the 1970s to the dominance of Piagetian theories and the resurgence of cognitive approaches in the 1980s to current texts that emphasize Vygotskian influences and constructivism along with a return to the instructional psychology of school subjects. Once a requirement in virtually all teacher preparation programs, educational courses have been replaced, renamed, redesigned, and integrated into other education courses. As examples of two issues in educational psychology and schooling, consider conceptions of intelligence and approaches to the teaching of reading.

What does intelligence mean? The idea of intelligence has been with us for a long time. Plato discussed similar variations more than 2,000 years ago. Most early theories about the nature of intelligence involved one or more of the following three themes:(1) the capacity to learn (2) the total knowledge a person has acquired and (3) the ability to adapt successfully to new situations and to the environment in general.

In the twentieth century there was considerable controversy over the meaning of intelligence. In 1986 at a symposium on intelligence, twenty-four psychologists each offered a different view about the nature of intelligence. More than half of the experts mentioned higher-level thinking processes such as abstract reasoning, problem solving, and decisionmaking as important aspects of intelligence, but they disagreed about the structure of intelligence: Is it a single ability or many separate abilities? Evidence that intelligence is a single basic ability affecting performance on all cognitively oriented tasks comes from consistent correlations among scores on most tests of specific mental abilities. In spite of these correlations, however, some psychologists insist that there several separate "primary mental abilities." In 1938 Louis Leon Thurstone listed verbal comprehension, memory, reasoning, ability to visualize spatial relationships, numerical ability, word fluency, and perceptual speed as the major mental abilities underlying intellectual tasks. Joy Paul Guilford and Howard Gardner are the most prominent modern proponents of the concept of multiple cognitive abilities. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences has had the greatest impact on education. According to Gardner there are at least eight separate kinds of intelligences: linguistic, musical, spatial, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and environmental.

Ability differences in schools. In the early 1900s, before group intelligence tests were readily available, teachers dealt with student achievement differences by promoting students who performed adequately and holding back others. This worked well for those who were promoted, but not for those who failed. The idea of social promotion was introduced to keep age-mates together, but then teaching had to change. When intelligence test became available, one solution was to promote all students, but group them by ability within their grade level. Ability grouping was the basis of many studies in the 1930s, but fell from favor until 1957 and the era of Sputnik, when concern grew about developing talent in mathematics and science. Again, in the 1960s and 1970s, ability grouping was criticized. In the early twenty-first century, teachers are encouraged to use forms of cooperative learning and heterogeneous grouping to deal with ability differences in their classes.

Learning to read. Educational psychologists have made great progress understanding how students learn different subjects. Based on these findings, approaches have been developed to teach reading, writing, science, mathematics, social studies, and other subjects. Reading instruction has been the focus of great controversy. Educators have debated whether students should be taught to read and write through code-based (phonics, skills) approaches that relate letters to sounds and sounds to words or through meaning-based (whole-language, literature-based, emergent literacy) approaches that focus on the meaning of the text.

Research in educational psychology demonstrates that whole language approaches to reading and writing are most effective in preschool and kindergarten because they improve students' motivation and interest and help them understand the nature and purposes of reading and writing. Phonemic awareness&ndashthe sense that words are composed of separate sounds and that sounds are combined to say words&ndashin kindergarten and first grade predicts literacy in later grades. If children do not have phonemic awareness in the early grades, direct teaching can dramatically improve their chances of long-term achievement in literacy. Excellent primary school teachers use a balance of explicit decoding-skills teaching and whole language instruction.

Testing in education. By 1925 Charles Judd proclaimed that "tests and measures are to be found in every progressive school in the land" (p. 807). In fact, psychology has had a profound impact on education through the adoption of testing. On the average, more than 1 million standardized tests are given per school day in classes throughout the United States. But tests are not without controversy. Critics of standardized testing state that these tests measure disjointed facts and skills that have no use or meaning in the real world. Often test questions do not match the curriculum of the schools, so the tests cannot measure how well students have learned the curriculum. Supporters assert that tests provide useful information. As Joseph Rice suggested more than a century ago, a good way to judge if teaching has been effective might be to test what the students learned. The test, however, does not tell all. Also more than 100 years ago, William James suggested that with test results must be combined with observations made "upon the total demeanor of the measured individual, by teachers with eyes in their heads and common sense and some feeling for the concrete facts of human nature in their hearts" (p. 84).

Expectations of the profession. Increasingly technology offers an alternative or addition to traditional materials in teaching and learning. For example, the Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University has developed a problem-based learning environment called anchored instruction. The anchor is the rich, authentic, and interesting situation presented via videodisk or computer that provides a focus&ndasha reason for setting goals, planning, and using mathematical tools to solve problems. Anchored instruction is an example of cognitive apprenticeships described above.

It is likely that educational psychologists will continue to contribute to education as they learn more about the brain and how learning occurs the development of intellect, affect, personality, character, and motivation ways of assessing learning and the creation of multifaceted learning environments. It also is likely that some issues will spiral through these contributions. What is a useful and appropriate balance of discovery and direct instruction? How can teachers, who must work with groups, adapt instruction to individual variations? What should be the role of testing and grading in education? What are the goals of education and how do instructors balance cognitive, affective, and psychomotor objectives? How can learning technologies be used to best advantage for students? How can teachers help students understand, remember, and apply knowledge? These questions may not be as new as they seem upon attendance to the history of psychology and its applications to education.


Educational psychology

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Educational psychology, theoretical and research branch of modern psychology, concerned with the learning processes and psychological problems associated with the teaching and training of students. The educational psychologist studies the cognitive development of students and the various factors involved in learning, including aptitude and learning measurement, the creative process, and the motivational forces that influence dynamics between students and teachers. Educational psychology is a partly experimental and partly applied branch of psychology, concerned with the optimization of learning. It differs from school psychology, which is an applied field that deals largely with problems in elementary and secondary school systems.

Educational psychology traces its origins to the experimental and empirical work on association and sensory activity by the English anthropologist Sir Francis Galton, and the American psychologist G. Stanley Hall, who wrote The Contents of Children’s Minds (1883). The major leader in the field of educational psychology, however, was the American educator and psychologist Edward Lee Thorndike, who designed methods to measure and test children’s intelligence and their ability to learn. Thorndike proposed the transfer-of-training theory, which states that “what is learned in one sphere of activity ‘transfers’ to another sphere only when the two spheres share common ‘elements.’ ”


Relationship between social psychology and educational psychology - Psychology

The word, ‘Psychology’ is derived from two Greek words, ‘Psyche’ and ‘Logos’. Psyche means ‘soul’ and ‘Logos’ means ‘science’. Thus psychology was first defined as the ‘science of soul”.

According to earlier psychologists, the function of psychology was to study the nature, origin and destiny of the human soul. But soul is something metaphysical. It cannot be seen, observed and touched and we cannot make scientific experiments on soul.

In the 18 th century, psychology was understood as the ‘Science of Mind’. William James (1892) defined psychology as the science of mental processes. But the word ‘mind ‘ is also quite ambiguous as there was confusion regarding the nature and functions of mind.

Modern psychologists defined psychology as the “Science of Consciousness”. James Sully (1884) defined psychology as the “Science of the Inner World”. Wilhelm Wundt (1892) defined psychology as the science which studies the “internal experiences’. But there are three levels of consciousness – conscious, subconscious and the unconscious and so this definition also was not accepted by some.

Thus psychology first lost its soul, then its mind and then its consciousness. At present only its behaviour exists. William McDugall (1905) defined psychology as the “Science of Behaviour”, W.B. Pillsbury (1911) and J.B. Watson (1912) also defined psychology as the science of behavior.

Behaviour generally means overt activities which can observed and measured scientifically. But one’s behaviour is always influenced by his experiences. So when we study one’s behaviour we must also study his experiences.

Psychology should, therefore, be defined as a “science of behaviour and experiences on human beings” (B.F. Skinner)

According to Crow and Crow, “Psychology is the study of human behaviour and human relationship’”.

What is Educational Psychology?

Educational psychology is that branch of psychology in which the findings of psychology are applied in the field of education. It is the scientific study of human behaviour in educational setting.

According to Charles. E. Skinner, “Educational psychology deals with the behaviour of human beings in educational situations”.

Thus educational psychology is a behavioural science with two main references– human behaviour and education.

In the words of E.A. Peel, “Educational Psychology is the science of Education”.

Education by all means is an attempt to mould and shape the behaviour of the pupil. It aims to produce desirable changes in him for the all-round development of his personality.

The essential knowledge and skill to do this job satisfactorily is supplied by Educational Psychology. In the words of E.A. Peel, “Educational psychology helps the teacher to understand the development of his pupils, the range and limits of their capacities, the processes by which they learn and their social relationships.”

In this way, the work of the Educational Psychologists resembles with that of an Engineer, who is a technical expert. The Engineer supplies all the knowledge and skill essential for the accomplishment of the job satisfactorily… for example, construction of a bridge.

In the same way Educational Psychologists, who is a technical expert in the field of Education, supplies all the information, principles and techniques essential for understanding the behaviour of the pupil in response to educational environment and desired modification of his behaviour to bring an all-round development of his personality.

In this way, it is quite reasonable to call Educational Psychology as a science and technology of Education.

Thus, Educational Psychology concerned primarily with understanding the processes of teaching and learning that take place within formal environments and developing ways of improving those methods. It covers important topics like learning theories teaching methods motivation cognitive, emotional, and moral development and parent-child relationships etc.

In short, it is the scientific discipline that addresses the questions: “Why do some students learn more than others?” and “What can be done to improve that learning?”

NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

Its nature is scientific as it has been accepted that it is a Science of Education. We can summarize the nature of Educational Psychology in the following ways:

1. Educational Psychology is a science. (Science is a branch of study concerned with observation of facts and establishment of verifiable general laws. Science employs certain objective methods for the collection of data. It has its objectives of understanding, explaining, predicting and control of facts.) Like any other science, educational psychology has also developed objective methods of collection of data. It also aims at understanding, predicting and controlling human behaviour.

2. Educational Psychology is a natural science. An educational psychologist conducts his investigations, gathers his data and reaches his conclusions in exactly the same manner as physicist or the biologist.

3. Educational psychology is a social science. Like the sociologist, anthropologist, economist or political scientist, the educational psychologist studies human beings and their sociability.

4. Educational psychology is a positive science. Normative science like Logic or Ethics deals with facts as they ought to be. A positive science deals with facts as they are or as they operate. Educational psychology studies the child’s behaviour as it is, not, as it ought to be. So it is a positive science.

5. Educational psychology is an applied science. It is the application of psychological principles in the field of education. By applying the principles and techniques of psychology, it tries to study the behaviour and experiences of the pupils. As a branch of psychology it is parallel to any other applied psychology. For example, educational psychology draws heavily facts from such areas as developmental psychology, clinical psychology, abnormal psychology and social psychology.

6. Educational psychology is a developing or growing science. It is concerned with new and ever new researches. As research findings accumulate, educational psychologists get better insight into the child’s nature and behaviour.

W.A. Kelly (1941) listed the nature of Educational Psychology as follows:
i. To give a knowledge of the nature of the child
ii. To give understanding of the nature, aims and purposes of education
iii. To give understanding of the scientific methods and procedures which have been used in arriving at the facts and principles of educational psychology
iv. To present the principles and techniques of learning and teaching
v. To give training in methods of measuring abilities and achievement in school subjects
vi. To give a knowledge of the growth and development of children
vii. To assist in the better adjustment of children and to help them to prevent maladjustment
viii. To study the educational significance and control of emotions and
ix. To give an understanding of the principles and techniques of correct training.

Thus, educational psychology is an applied, positive, social, specific and practical science. While general science deals with behaviour of the individuals in various spheres, educational psychology studies the behaviour of the individual in educational sphere only.

SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

The scope of educational psychology is ever-growing due to constantly researches in this field. The following factors will indicate the scope of educational psychology:

1. The Learner. The subject-matter of educational psychology is knitted around the learner. Therefore, the need of knowing the learner and the techniques of knowing him well. The topics include – the innate abilities and capacities of the individuals, individual differences and their measurements, the overt, covert, conscious as well as unconscious behaviour of the learner, the characteristics of his growth and development and each stage beginning from childhood to adulthood.

2. The Learning Experiences. Educational Psychology helps in deciding what learning experiences are desirable, at what stage of the growth and development of the learner, so that these experiences can be acquired with a greater ease and satisfaction.

3. Learning process: After knowing the learner and deciding what learning experiences are to be provided, Educational Psychology moves on to the laws, principles and theories of learning. Other items in the learning process are remembering and forgetting, perceiving, concept formation, thinking and reasoning, problem solving, transfer of learning, ways and means of effective learning etc.

4. Learning Situation or Environment. Here we deal with the environmental factors and learning situations which come midway between the learner and the teacher. Topics like classroom climate and group dynamics, techniques and aids that facilitate learning and evaluation, techniques and practices, guidance and counselling etc. For the smooth functioning of the teaching-learning process.

5. The Teacher: The teacher is a potent force is any scheme of teaching and learning process. It discusses the role of the teacher. It emphasizes the need of ‘knowing thyself’ for a teacher to play his role properly in the process of education. His conflicts, motivation. Anxiety, adjustment, level of aspiration etc. It throws light on the essential personality traits, interests, aptitudes, the characteristics of effective teaching etc so as to inspire him for becoming a successful teacher.

Though the entire scope of Educational Psychology is included in the above mentioned five key-factors, it may be further expanded by adding the following:

6. It studies Human Behaviour in educational situations. Psychology is the study of behaviour, and education deals with the modification of behaviour hence, educational psychology pervades the whole field of education.

7. It studies the Growth and Development of the child. How a child passes through the various stages of growth and what are the characteristics of each stage are included in the study of educational psychology.

8. To what extent Heredity and Environment contribute towards the growth of the individual, and how this knowledge can be made use of for bringing about the optimum development of the child form a salient feature of the scope of educational psychology.

9. Educational psychology deals with the Nature and Development of the Personality of an individual. In fact, education has been defined as the all-round development of the personality of an individual personality development also implies a well-adjusted personality.

10. It studies Individual Difference: Every individual differs from every other individual. It is one of the fundamental facts of human nature which have been brought to light by educational psychology. This one fact has revolutionalised the concept and process of education.

11. It studies the nature Intelligence and its Measurement. This is of utmost importance for a teacher.

12. It Provides Guidance and Counselling: Education is nothing but providing guidance to the growing child.

We can conclude by saying that Educational Psychology is narrower in scope than general psychology. While general psychology deals with the behaviour of the individual in a general way, educational psychology in concerned with the behaviour of the learner in an educational setting.


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Our students study psychology as both a natural science and social science. Because of our program’s breadth and depth, they are able to tailor their education for postgraduate studies and careers in psychology, medicine, social work, law, education, and more.

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The mediating effect of perceived social support on the relationship between mindfulness and burnout in special education teachers

Correspondence Changxin Zhang, Department of Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Education, East China Normal University, 3663 N. North Zhongshan Rd., Shanghai 200062, China.

Department of Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China

Department of Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

Department of Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

Department of Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

Correspondence Changxin Zhang, Department of Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Education, East China Normal University, 3663 N. North Zhongshan Rd., Shanghai 200062, China.

Abstract

This study aimed to explore the mediating effect of perceived social support on the relationship between mindfulness and burnout in Chinese special education teachers. Three hundred and seven teachers completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale, and Teacher Burnout Inventory. The results showed that burnout was negatively correlated with mindfulness and perceived social support, while perceived social support was positively correlated with mindfulness. Moreover, perceived social support partially mediated the effect of mindfulness on special education teachers' burnout. These results suggest that the use of mindfulness combined with perceived social support may be beneficial for preventing and mitigating burnout among special education teachers.


Education

The word ‘Psychology’ is derived from Greek word Psycho and logos. Psycho’ means ‘Soul’ and ‘logos’ means ‘Science’, The Science of Soul.
Psychology acquired separate status very recently. Formerly it was studied as a sub-branch of philosophy. Later on philosophers give another definition of psychology the ‘science of mind’. All these definitions were given by philosophers-psychologists prior to the beginning of experimental psychology.

Psychology as ‘Science of Behavior’

Today psychology is scientific methods of collecting data about individuals and groups to analyze and predict their behavior.

Roots of Psychology

The roots of Psychology could be traced back in philosophy and science. When physiologists of the late nineteenth century began to use scientific methods to study mind, later on Psychology became an independent scientific discipline.

Scientific Roots of Psychology

By nineteenth century, psychologists were progressing than philosophers in answering questions about the nature of psychological processes.

Education and psychology

Education is a process which enables the individual to distinguish between true and false, good and bad, right and wrong (Imam Ghazali)

Stephen, “Educational Psychology is the systematic study of the educational growth and development of a child".

Some psychologists called psychology as a branch of education, as James Mill implied in the early nineteenth century. However, some other psychologist Disagree with them, who were familiar with the history of psychology and continuing, links between psychology and education. They defend it with the comparison of historical and contemporary relationship between education and psychology.

One question, which is frequently asked that a field like psychology, which is divided within self, could be used and applied constructively to a practical field like education. It is the fact that we are dealing with two different fields one is concerned with human ends and the means of promoting them, the other with understanding and knowledge of human experience and actions. Today it is acknowledged widely that psychology has influenced education in the past.

Why We Study Psychology In Education

It is very essential for a teacher to teach his students according to their mental abilities. Educational psychology helps the teacher in doing so. It enables the teacher to teach where and how? It helps us in the following ways.

Relationship between education and psychology

Education and psychology are interdependent. One psychologist said that I did not understand how a teacher could teach with out the knowledge of education Psychology. Psychology had changed the spirit of education and it gives new meaning to learning in classroom.
Psychology also changed the old concept of education where only upper class had the ability and right to learn. Psychology gives education the theory of individual differences that every child has different mental ability and learns with different pace.
Today in modern era, education psychology is the foundation of education. Psychology effect education in every filed of teaching learning process.

· Psychologist suggest use of different methods in teaching learning process to achieve better result
· Psychologist emphasis on Motivation and readiness in class room
· Psychology introduce new theories of learning in education
· Psychology emphasis on activity base teaching learning process
· Use of Visual Aid in teaching learning process
· Psychology is the study of human behavior while Education is the process of modifying human behavior so both deal with human behavior in different ways.
· Educational psychology deals with educational problems
· General psychology deals with different problems other then education

Psychology and teacher

• Psychology enhance the vision of teacher to understand the mental status of his students
• Psychology help teacher to evaluate his student, to measure his achievements
• With the help of psychology teacher understand the weakness of his students and with the help of psychology he find solution for that problem
• Psychology bring change in the attitude of the teacher toward his students
• Psychology introduce new mental test through which teacher evaluate the students
• Psychology produce new theories of learning for better education
• With the help of psychology teacher learn to modify the behavior of a students
• Psychology teach teacher why a Child behaves in a certain situation differently than other
• What teacher need to do to change a negative behavior to a positive one

Untrained Teacher

• Without proper training, a teacher could not understand the psychology of the child and his problems, what the possibilities are and why the child is not learning. A train teacher could understand the problem and eradicate it.

Educational Psychology and Curriculum

A good curriculum is that, which stimulate the constructive potentialities of the students and which is prepared according to their needs. The curriculum should be according to the mental level of the students
• What to teach and how to teach?
• Prepare the curriculum according to the needs of the students and society
• Preparing curriculum from easy to difficult approach
• Psychology stress on individual difference, therefore curriculum should be flexible for all the learner in the class room

Education Psychology and Evaluation

Educational psychology has introduced different types of tests and examinations and derived scientific measurement for intelligence, Personality education etc these tests disclose the weak points of aptitude of the students and for this purpose help from statistical principles has been taken. Psychology bring new methods of Evaluation in education

• Evaluation of child IQ (* Intelligence test )
• Evaluate the factor of slow learning in the class room situation
• Personality test
• Attitude and interest Test
• The Stanford-binet scale of intelligence test
The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a standardized test that assesses intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults aged two to twenty three years, determining the presence of a learning disability or a developmental delay.

Educational Psychology and Method of Teaching:

If the teacher teaches his students according to the interest and mental development of the students, they will like it and will learn it easily. The teacher should teach according to their mental level. Audio visual aids in the educational Processes are also the result of educational psychology. Education process is also the result of educational psychology.

Education Psychology and Guidance and Counseling

Many students have many problems in education, society and emotions, which have to be guided. Psychologist provide guidance in such conditions and for this purpose child guidance clinics have been opened in school in developed countries

What are the duties of Guidance Counselor?

• Psychologist emphasis that every schools should have a guidance counselor
• To evaluate problematic child and rectify his problem
• To prepare reports on the mental state of such students
• To provide help to the teacher to understand students behavior
• One psychologist says I don't understand how a teacher could teach without the knowledge of education psychology

Educational Psychology and Different Stages of Growth

According to growth, the personality and mental ability of an individual can be divided into different stages i.e. child hood and adult hood etc. during these stages the mental maturity is at different stages. Psychologists consider that if the reaching process is according to these different stages it will be easily learnt. Different methods of teaching are used at different stages. This is impossible without proper knowledge of psychology.

Educational Psychology and Development of Personality

To build up the personality of an individual is the aim of education. To study the stimuli and responses of personality demerits and their causes in personality and reforms of personality is impossible without proper knowledge of psychology.

Educational Psychology and Social Adjustment

Educational psychology has shown factors effect in social adjustment and indorsed principles which lead a man to adjustment of the society.

Educational Psychology and Learning
Learning is the basic topic of educational psychology. From the meaning of learning, up to the laws of learning. Different topics have been highlighted by psychology, which have made the process of education very easy, interesting and pleasant.

Educational Psychology and Mental Health

Educational psychology has pointed out the factors affecting mental health of the Students. If these principles are not regulated the students can not adjust themselves in the society. Mental retardation is created due to bad environment, improper food, and emotional and social needs. To produce hygienic mental conditions is the work of only a psychologist.

Educational Psychology and Children of Special Attention

Physically disable students have many educational, emotional and social problems. To lead them to a successful life and eradicate their psychological problems, Psychologist helps them to become a useful part of the society.

Educational Psychology and School Organization

According to psychologist a school must have, democratic environment to help the students to develop balanced personalities. The social environment in school can be an effective tool to allow the students to develop a number of qualities such as self confidence, leadership, cooperation and healthy competition, decision making, problem solving and good citizenship.

In the school, students can face a number of problems related to their social, emotional or Physical development. Educational psychology also has a great role in helping the students through various types of guidance and counseling.

Educational psychology is also helpful by supporting the curricular as well as co-curricular and extracurricular activities in schools.

• Numan, D. Foundation of education. Peshawar
• L. Gordon, (1990) Gender and Higher Education in the Progressive Era
• Muhammad Iqbal, D. Reconstruction of religious thoughts in Islam
• P. A. Graham, (1967) Progressive Education from Arcady to Academe
• James, W. (1904) The Chicago school. Psychological Bulletin. 1, 1-5.


The Role of Educational Psychology in Teacher Education Programs

Education and psychology are interdependent. One psychologist said that I did not understand how a teacher could teach without the knowledge of education Psychology. Psychology had changed the spirit of education and it gives new meaning to learning in classroom. Psychology also changed the old concept of education where only upper class had the ability and right to learn. Psychology gives education the theory of individual differences that every child has different mental ability and learns with different pace. Today in modern era, education psychology is the foundation of education. Psychology effect education in every field of teaching learning process. For years, teacher educators have written about the purposes, aims, and goals of educational psychology and have stressed the relevance of the field for the practice of teaching and learning (Alexander 2004 Berliner, 1993 Brophy 1974 Woolfolk Hoy 2000). However, as Sternberg (1996) noted, educational psychologists seem to be having more and more trouble explaining to educators what they do and why educators should care. In this special issue, authors explore the relevance of educational psychology in teacher education programs, noting how educational psychology contributes to the preparation of teachers. It is very essential for a teacher to teach his students according to their mental abilities. Educational psychology helps the teacher in doing so. It enables the teacher to teach where and how? The way in which teachers are educated and supported to meet the challenges of the 21st century has become a contended issue. In raising alarm, criticizing the status quo, and making recommendations, various study groups and blue ribbon panels have focused on economic issues, equity and excellence, the need for more rigorous subject matter preparation, and on the restructuring of incentives and the career ladder for teachers.


Relationship between social psychology and educational psychology - Psychology

Social Psychology of Education draws from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and education in order to help us better understand human behavior in education. The journal fills a gap in the literature by covering a wide variety of content concerns (e.g., classroom instruction, student cultures and interactions), theoretical interests (e.g., group dynamics, social learning theory), and research methods (e.g., comparative research, literature reviews, panel studies). Articles are of particular value to social psychologists with an interest in educational matters and educational researchers who use or are interested in using a social psychological approach.

  • Draws from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and education
  • Explores a wide variety of content concerns, theoretical interests, and research methods
  • Enhances our understanding of human behavior in education

Essay on Relationship Between Sociology and Social Psychology

Essay on Relationship Between Sociology and Social Psychology – Sociology and Psychology are contributory sciences.

Psychology has been defined as the study of human behaviour. In the words of Thouless, “Psychology is the positive science of human experience and behaviour”.

The problem of relation between sociology and psychology is still disputed. According to Durkheim, sociology should study social facts and not psychological facts. Social facts, according to him, are something external to the individual and exercise an external constraint on the indi­vidual.

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On the other hand, writers like Ginsberg hold the opinion that many sociological explana­tions could be made firmly established by being related to general psychological laws or explana­tions. As such, psychological phenomenon is the result of social interaction.

Social Psychology, Psychology, as the science of behaviour, occupies itself principally and primarily with the individual. It is interested in his intelligence and his learning, his hopes and his fears and the order and the disorder of his mind. Social psychology serves as a bridge between psychology and sociology.

As Krech and Crutchfield define, “Social psychology is the science of the behaviour of the individual in society “. Social psychology deals with the mental processes of man, considering him as a social being. It attempts to determine the character of his social behaviour.

It involves various aspects of social behaviour: social interaction, interaction between an individual and a group, and interaction between one group of individuals and another group of individuals. It studies the individual in his relation to his fellow-men. It also studies how an individual’s person­ality is a function both of his basic physiological and temperamental equipment and of the social and cultural influences to which he is exposed.

The relationship between social psychology and sociology is so close that Karl Pearson asserts that the two are not separate sciences. McDougall and Freud expressed the view that the whole of the social life could be reduced finally to psychological forces. In that case, sociology would be reduced to a mere branch of psychology.

This view is not an acceptable one. Social behaviour of man is affected by political, economic, biological and geographic factors also. Social life of man should not be studied exclusively with the methods of psychology. The mutual dependence of social psychol­ogy and sociology should not be interpreted to mean that one is either identical with or is the branch of the other.

Interdependence of the Two Sciences:

Social psychology has to depend on sociology to understand properly human nature and behaviour as it is sociology which provides the necessary material regarding the structure, organisation and culture of societies to which individuals belong. Similarly, the sociologists have taken the assistance from social psychology. They have recognised the importance of psychological factors in understanding the changes in social structure.

Common Topics of Interest for both the Sciences:

Sociologists and social psychologists may have to study together certain common topics such as- individual disorganisation, crime, juvenile delinquency, social disorganisation, public opinion, propaganda, leadership, war conflicts, socialisation, suggestion, imitation, fashion and so on.

Social Psychology Helps to Face Social Problems:

Social psychology helps us a great deal in facing several social problems. Problems such as racial conflict, religious prejudices, communal tensions, crimes, juvenile delinquency, prostitution, gambling and alcoholism are not totally isolated cases in the society.

As they are inseparable from normal social processes and normal social behaviour, the knowledge of social psychology should be brought to bear on the solution of these problems.

Deviant patterns such as stealing, suicide, divorce and prostitution are also normal consequences of our social institutions. As social behaviour and misbehaviour are very closely interrelated, applied social psychologist must be an expert in the details of the practical problems.

Of course, the social psychologist must know his limitations in curing these social evils. He cannot be ‘master-fixer’ of solutions to social problems.

The expressed views of some thinkers on the mutual relationship of the two sciences:

Emphasising the close relation between sociology and social psychology, Lapiere writes that “Social psychology is to sociology and psychology, as Bio-chemistry is to Biology and Chemistry”.

Maclver says that “Sociology in special gives aid to psychology, just as psychology gives special aid to sociology”. To quote Murphy, “social psychology is the study of the way in which the individual becomes member of and functions in a social group”.

T.B. Bottomore says that “Social Psychology is that part of general psychology which has a particular life”. Robert Bierstedt says that “Social psychology, serves as a bridge between psychology and sociology”. Maclver and Page have said: “When we study the nature of the individual conscious­ness which expresses itself in social relationships, we are taking the psychological point of view.

When we study the relationships themselves we take the sociological point of view. Both sciences are concerned with different aspects of an indivisible reality. Individuals cannot be understood apart from their relations with one another the relations cannot be understood apart from the units of the relationship.”


Relationship Between Children's Social Competence, Learning Motivation and School Achievement

The influences of the social environment and affective factors on academic achievement were identified as early as the 1970s. This line of research continued in the following decades, but the relationship between social competence and academic achievement remained a neglected issue. The aim of the empirical research presented in this paper was to define those components of social competence that influence learning motivation and academic achievement. The following components of social competence were selected for analysis: dynamism, dominance, cooperativeness, politeness, scrupulousness, perseverance, emotional control, impulse control, openness, external-internal control attitude and attachments. Four questionnaires were administered to a sample of 6th and 10th grade students (altogether 438 subjects). The results show that the assessed social factors are not affected considerably by age. The correlation analyses reveal the importance of intrinsic motivation within learning motivation, manifested in its strong relationship to the variables representing the social factors of personality except for emotional stability. The results of the regression analysis indicate that friendliness and openness have the largest impact on each other among social factors extraversion. The results show that conscientiousness, openness and academic self-concept explains most of the variance in intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation seems to exert considerable effect on these three variables.


Watch the video: Studieinriktningen socialpsykologi vid Socu0026kom (August 2022).