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Borderline Personality Disorder (TLP) or borderline It is a type of personality disorder whose general pattern is based on instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions. People with BPD tend to be very impulsive, which often leads them to conduct self-injurious behaviors (risky sexual behaviors, suicide attempts, etc.).
Previously, people with BPD were thought to be on the "border" between:
- Neurosis: when a person is mentally in difficulties, but you can still see the difference between perception and reality.
- Psychosis: when a person is not able to see the difference between perception and reality, and can experience delusions and hallucinations.
Currently, TLP is understood as a disorder of mood and social behavior.
- 1 Start of Borderline Personality Disorder (TLP)
- 2 Main characteristics of the TLP
- 3 Symptoms of BPD
- 4 How is BPD diagnosed?
- 5 Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder
- 6 Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder
Start of Borderline Personality Disorder (TLP)
The Borderline Personality Disorder appears mainly in early adulthood or adolescence. Even so, generally the unstable pattern of interacting with others has previously existed for years and is closely related to the person's own image and early social interactions. The pattern of behavior occurs in a variety of settings (for example, not only at work or at home) and is often accompanied by intense lability (its state fluctuates, sometimes rapidly) in emotions and the feelings of a person.
Apparently BPD is more common in women than in men (74% of cases diagnosed are women), but this is not known for sure, some say it is probably less recognized in men, who are less prone to seek treatment It is believed to affect between 1.6 and 5.9 percent of the general population.
Main characteristics of the TLP
People with BPD are extremely sensitive to environmental circumstances.. The perception of an imminent separation or rejection, or the loss of an external structure, can lead to profound changes in your self-image, your affection, your cognition and your behavior. They tend to experience intense fears of abandonment and inappropriate anger, even when faced with a limited and realistic separation of time, or when there are inevitable changes in their plans (for example, sudden despair as a reaction when announcing the end of medical treatment, panic or fury when someone important to them is a few minutes late or must cancel an appointment, etc.). Somehow they tend to believe that this "abandonment" implies that they are "bad." These fears of abandonment are related to an intolerance to loneliness and the need to constantly have other people by your side.
Symptoms of BPD
A person with this disorder also usually exhibits impulsive behaviors and has most of the following symptoms:
- Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
- Impulsiveness in at least two areas that are potentially harmful to themselves (for example, expenses, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating).
- Emotional instability due to the significant reactivity of the mood (for example, episodes of intense dysphoria, irritability or anxiety that usually last a few hours and rarely more than a few days).
- A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, characterized by the alternation between the extremes of idealization and devaluation.
- Identity alteration, as a significant and persistent unstable self-image or sense of self.
- Recurrent Suicidal Behaviors, either with gestures or threats, or self-mutilation behavior.
- Chronic feelings of emptiness.
- Intense anger and difficulty controlling it (For example, frequent signs of temper, constant anger, recurring physical fights).
- Paranoid Thoughts related to transient stress or severe dissociative symptoms
On the other hand, according to psychologist J. Pretzer, people with BPD conceive the world in dichotomous terms, that is, their opinions about themselves, the world and the future tend to be completely positive or completely negative. This way of thinking leads to extremely intense, extreme and rapidly changing emotions, without the possibility of middle terms. As a consequence, those at his side perceive these changes as irrational and random.
Fortunately, BPD generally decreases in intensity with age, many people who have experienced some of the most extreme symptoms have diminished over time, and the 40 or 50 years in most of them have even disappeared.
How is BPD diagnosed?
The personality disorders, as the TLP is diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family doctors and family doctors in general are not usually trained or well equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. Thus, while a family doctor may initially consult about this problem, a mental health professional should be referred for diagnosis and treatment.
Unfortunately, many people with BPD do not seek treatment until the disease begins to significantly interfere or affect the life of another person. This usually occurs when the coping resources of the other person have been exhausted when dealing with stress or other life events.
Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder
Still today it is not known what causes BPD. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes, however most professionals point to a biopsychosocial model of causality, that is, the causes are probably due to the interaction of genetic, social factors (for example, how a person interacts in his early development with his family and friends and other children), and psychological (the personality and temperament of the individual, shaped by their environment and their learning in skills to deal with coping stress). This suggests that no factor is responsible, rather, it is the complex and probably intertwined nature of the three factors that are important. If a person has BPD, research suggests that there is a slight increase in the risk for this disorder that is "transmitted" to their children.
Borderline Personality Disorder Treatment
Treatment of borderline personality disorder usually involves psychotherapy with a therapist who has experience in treating this type of personality disorder. The medicines They can also be prescribed to help with specific worrisome and debilitating symptoms.
American Psychiatric Association Borderline personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013: 663-666.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Gunderson, J.G. MD (2006-04-10). "Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychotherapies." American Medical Network
- Depression test
- Goldberg depression test
- Self-knowledge test
- how do others see you?
- Sensitivity test (PAS)
- Character test